In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging in the Second Near-Infrared Window Using Carbon Nanotubes

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1444)


In vivo fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II window, 1000–1700 nm) is a powerful imaging technique that emerged in recent years. This imaging tool allows for noninvasive, deep-tissue visualization and interrogation of anatomical features and functions with improved imaging resolution and contrast at greater tissue penetration depths than traditional fluorescence imaging. Here, we present the detailed protocol for conducting NIR-II fluorescence imaging in live animals, including the procedures for preparation of biocompatible and NIR-II fluorescent carbon nanotube solution, live animal administration and NIR-II fluorescence image acquisition.

Key words

Near-infrared II Second near-infrared window NIR-II fluorescence imaging Carbon nanotubes Tissue penetration Photon scattering Autofluorescence 



We thank members from the Dai lab, in particular Shuo Diao, Alexander L. Antaris, and Dr. Xiaodong Zhang for helpful discussion and support. This study is supported by grants from the National Cancer Institute of US National Institute of Health to H.D. (5R01CA135109-02).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Chemical BiologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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