Experimental Models of Anxiety for Drug Discovery and Brain Research
Animal models have been vital to recent advances in experimental neuroscience, including the modeling of common human brain disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. As mice express robust anxiety-like behaviors when exposed to stressors (e.g., novelty, bright light, or social confrontation), these phenotypes have clear utility in testing the effects of psychotropic drugs. Of specific interest is the extent to which mouse models can be used for the screening of new anxiolytic drugs and verification of their possible applications in humans. To address this problem, the present chapter will review different experimental models of mouse anxiety and discuss their utility for testing anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs. Detailed protocols will be provided for these paradigms, and possible confounds will be addressed accordingly.
Key wordsAnxiety Experimental animal models Anxiolytic drugs Anxiogenic drugs Biological psychiatry Exploration
This work was supported by the NARSAD YI Award to AVK, and by Stress Physiology and Research Center (SPaRC) of Georgetown University Medical School. AVK is the President of the International Stress and Behavior Society (ISBS, www.stressandbehavior.com). He is supported by Guangdong Ocean University, St. Petersburg State University (internal grant 220.127.116.114) and Ural Federal University (Government of Russian Federation Act 211, contract 02-A03.21.0006).
- 1.Warnick JE, Sufka KJ (2008) Animal models of anxiety: examining their validity, utility, and ethical characteristics. In: Kalueff AV, LaPorte JL (eds) Behavioral models in stress research. Nova Biomedical Books, New York, pp 55–71Google Scholar
- 3.Ohl F (2005) Animal models of anxiety. Handb Exp Pharmacol 1:35–69Google Scholar
- 12.Ito N, Nagai T, Oikawa T, Yamada H, Hanawa T (2008) Antidepressant-like effect of l-perillaldehyde in stress-induced depression-like model mice through regulation of the olfactory nervous system. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011:512697Google Scholar