Synthetic mRNA pp 163-175 | Cite as

FLT3 Ligand as a Molecular Adjuvant for Naked RNA Vaccines

  • Sebastian Kreiter
  • Mustafa Diken
  • Abderraouf Selmi
  • Jutta Petschenka
  • Özlem Türeci
  • Ugur SahinEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1428)


Intranodal immunization with antigen-encoding naked mRNA has proven to be an efficacious and safe approach to induce antitumor immunity. Thanks to its unique characteristics, mRNA can act not only as a source for antigen but also as an adjuvant for activation of the immune system. The search for additional adjuvants that can be combined with mRNA to further improve the potency of the immunization revealed Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) ligand as a potent candidate. Systemic administration of the dendritic cell-activating FLT3 ligand prior to or along with mRNA immunization-enhanced priming and expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in lymphoid organs, T-cell homing into melanoma tumors, and therapeutic activity of the intranodally administered mRNA. Both compounds demonstrate a successful combination in terms of boosting the immune response. This chapter describes methods for intranodal immunization with naked mRNA by co-administration of FLT3 ligand, which leads to strong synergistic effects.

Key words

FLT3 ligand IVT-RNA RNA vaccine Intranodal injection Dendritic cell Cancer vaccination Immunotherapy Vaccine adjuvants 



The authors would like to thank Marc Holzmann for helpful technical assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebastian Kreiter
    • 1
  • Mustafa Diken
    • 1
  • Abderraouf Selmi
    • 1
  • Jutta Petschenka
    • 1
  • Özlem Türeci
    • 1
  • Ugur Sahin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.TRON-Translational Oncology at the University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg UniversityTRON gGmbHMainzGermany

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