Chemotaxis pp 217-228 | Cite as

Visualizing Cancer Cell Chemotaxis and Invasion in 2D and 3D

  • Olivia Susanto
  • Andrew J. Muinonen-Martin
  • Max Nobis
  • Robert H. Insall
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1407)


We describe three chemotaxis assays—Insall chambers, circular invasion assays, and 3D organotypic assays—that are particularly appropriate for measuring migration of cancer cells in response to gradients of soluble attractants. Each assay has defined advantages, and together they provide the best possible quantitative assessment of cancer chemotaxis.

Key words

Chemotaxis Melanoma Metastasis Invasion Organotypic Cell migration 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olivia Susanto
    • 1
  • Andrew J. Muinonen-Martin
    • 2
  • Max Nobis
    • 1
  • Robert H. Insall
    • 1
  1. 1.CR-UK Beatson Institute for Cancer ResearchGlasgowUK
  2. 2.Melanoma Clinic, Leeds Cancer CentreSt. James’s University HospitalLeedsUK

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