Advertisement

Quantitation of Albumin in Urine by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

  • Hemamalini Ketha
  • Ravinder J. Singh
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1378)

Abstract

Urinary excretion of human serum albumin (HSA), a 6.65 kDa monomeric protein, is a sensitive marker of renal damage associated with many diseases including diabetes mellitus. Albumin is synthesized by the liver and functions as a transport protein for fat-soluble hormones and drugs and for maintaining plasma colloid osmotic pressure and pH. Albumin is not filtered at the glomerulus and its presence in the urine at concentration above 30 mg/day is suggestive of glomerular damage. Early diagnosis of microalbuminuria (30–300 mg/24 h urine albumin excretion or 30–300 mg/g creatinine in random collections) has prognostic value for monitoring disease progression and early clinical management of diabetic nephropathy in prediabetic patients. Current methods for quantitation of urine albumin are based on immunoassays or size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection (SEC-HPLC-UV). Studies have demonstrated discordance between the existing methods. It has been suggested that while immunoassays underestimate albumin in urine, SEC-HPLC-UV method overestimates albumin as it cannot separate co-eluting interferences. This chapter describes a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS candidate reference method for albumin quantitation.

Key words

LC-MS/MS Albumin Microalbuminuria Microalbumin 

References

  1. 1.
    Rothschild MA, Oratz M, Schreiber SS (1988) Serum albumin. Hepatology 8:385–401CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Remuzzi G, Macia M, Ruggenenti P (2006) Prevention and treatment of diabetic renal disease in type 2 diabetes: the BENEDICT study. J Am Soc Nephrol 17:S90–S97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Perkins BA, Krolewski AS (2005) Early nephropathy in type 1 diabetes: a new perspective on who will and who will not progress. Curr Diab Rep 5:455–463CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Owen WE, Roberts WL (2005) Performance characteristics of an HPLC assay for urinary albumin. Am J Clin Pathol 124:219–225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Busby DE, Bakris GL (2004) Comparison of commonly used assays for the detection of microalbuminuria. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 6:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sviridov D, Meilinger B, Drake SK, Hoehn GT, Hortin GL (2006) Coelution of other proteins with albumin during size-exclusion HPLC: implications for analysis of urinary albumin. Clin Chem 52:389–397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Singh R, Crow FW, Babic N, Lutz WH, Lieske JC, Larson TS, Kumar R (2007) A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of urinary albumin using a novel 15N-isotopically labeled albumin internal standard. Clin Chem 53:540–542CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Babic N, Larson TS, Grebe SK, Turner ST, Kumar R, Singh RJ (2006) Application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technology for early detection of microalbuminuria in patients with kidney disease. Clin Chem 52:2155–2157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hemamalini Ketha
    • 1
  • Ravinder J. Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.Departement of PathologyUniversity of Michigan Health SystemAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of Laboratory Medicine and PathologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations