Somatic Embryogenesis in Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze (Araucariaceae)

  • Miguel P. GuerraEmail author
  • Neusa Steiner
  • Francine L. Farias-Soares
  • Leila do N. Vieira
  • Hugo P. F. Fraga
  • Gladys D. Rogge-Renner
  • Sara B. Maldonado
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1359)


This chapter deals with the features of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Araucaria angustifolia, an endangered and native conifer from south Brazil. In this species SE includes the induction and proliferation of embryogenic cultures composed of pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs), which precede somatic embryos development. A. angustifolia SE model encompasses induction, proliferation, pre-maturation, and maturation steps. Double-staining with acetocarmine and Evan’s blue is useful to evaluate the embryonic somatic structures. In this chapter we describe A. angustifolia SE protocols and analyzes morphological features in the different SE developmental stages.

Key words

Conifers Forest biotechnology Germplasm conservation Plant cell culture Plant physiology Somatic embryogenesis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel P. Guerra
    • 1
    Email author
  • Neusa Steiner
    • 2
  • Francine L. Farias-Soares
    • 1
  • Leila do N. Vieira
    • 1
  • Hugo P. F. Fraga
    • 1
  • Gladys D. Rogge-Renner
    • 3
    • 4
  • Sara B. Maldonado
    • 5
  1. 1.Graduate Program in Plant Genetic Resources, Plant Developmental Physiology and Genetics LaboratoryFederal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC)FlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUFSCFlorianópolisBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetics, Plant Cell Biology LaboratoryUFSCFlorianópolisBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Joinville RegionJoinvilleBrazil
  5. 5.Department of Biodiversity and Experimental BiologyUniversity of Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina

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