Human Tfh and Tfr Cells: Identification and Assessment of Their Migration Potential

  • Chang H. Kim
  • Seika Hashimoto-Hill
  • Seung G. Kang
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1291)


The ability of follicular T cells to migrate into B-cell follicles is central for them to participate in germinal center responses. The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed by both Tfh and Tfr cells and is the defining marker for follicular T cells. In addition, Tfh and Tfr cells express additional chemokine receptors to enable them to interact with B cells and other cell types. CXCR5+ Tfh and Tfr cells are divided into CCR7+ perifollicular cells and CCR7 follicular cells. Most of the CXCR5+ CCR7 Tfh cells reside in germinal centers and are called GC T cells. The methods to identify human Tfh and Tfr cell subsets based on chemokine receptors and other antigens and assess their migration potential are provided in this article.

Key words

Human Tfh Tfr CXCR5 CCR7 Foxp3 Germinal center Chemotaxis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang H. Kim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Seika Hashimoto-Hill
    • 1
    • 2
  • Seung G. Kang
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Immunology and Hematopoiesis, Department of Comparative PathobiologyPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Purdue College of Veterinary MedicinePurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  3. 3.Department of Immunology and Microbial ScienceThe Scripps Research InstituteLa JollaUSA

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