The Accessory Limb Model: An Alternative Experimental System of Limb Regeneration

  • Tetsuya Endo
  • David M. Gardiner
  • Aki Makanae
  • Akira SatohEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1290)


Accessory limb model (ALM) was developed as an experimental model and functional assay for limb regeneration. The ALM provides several ways to identify pathways and test for signaling molecules that regulate limb regeneration. Here, we summarize the history of the ALM and describe the specific details involved in inducing ectopic blastemas and limbs from a skin wound on the side of the arm.

Key words

Salamander Axolotl Nerve Limb regeneration Slow-release sustained bead 



This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (KAKENHI #23124508 to AS and #22124006 to TE).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tetsuya Endo
    • 1
  • David M. Gardiner
    • 2
  • Aki Makanae
    • 3
  • Akira Satoh
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Liberal Arts and SciencesAichi Gakuin UniversityNissinJapan
  2. 2.Department of Developmental and Cell BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  3. 3.Research Core for Interdisciplinary Sciences (RCIS)Okayama UniversityOkayamaJapan

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