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Epigenetics of Urothelial Carcinoma

  • Wolfgang A. SchulzEmail author
  • Evangelia A. Koutsogiannouli
  • Günter Niegisch
  • Michèle J. Hoffmann
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1238)

Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma is the most frequent type of bladder cancer. Improvements in diagnostics and therapy of this common tumor are urgently required and need to be based on a better understanding of its biology. Epigenetic aberrations are crucial to urothelial carcinoma development and progression. They affect DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, long noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Compared to other cancers, DNA hypomethylation, especially at LINE-1 retrotransposons, and mutations in enzymes establishing or removing histone acetylation or methylation are particularly prominent. Accumulating evidence suggests that disturbances in DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs may contribute especially to altered differentiation and metastatic potential. With proper selection, histone-modifying enzymes may constitute good targets for therapy. For diagnostics, DNA methylation and miRNA biomarkers are well suited because of their relatively high stability. There are indeed excellent biomarker candidates for DNA-methylation-based diagnostics of urothelial carcinoma, whereas miRNAs are well investigated, but there are still many discrepancies between studies published to date.

Key words

Biomarker Diagnosis Epigenetics Methylation Urothelial carcinoma 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Our studies on epigenetic in urothelial carcinoma are supported by a fellowship of the Bodossaki foundation to E.A.K. a young investigator grant of the research commission of the Medical Faculty of the Heinrich Heine University to M.J.H and a grant of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft to G.N.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang A. Schulz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Evangelia A. Koutsogiannouli
    • 1
  • Günter Niegisch
    • 2
  • Michèle J. Hoffmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyHeinrich Heine UniversityDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Department of UrologyHeinrich Heine UniversityDüsseldorfGermany

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