Detection and Analysis of Non-retroviral RNA Virus-Like Elements in Plant, Fungal, and Insect Genomes
Endogenous non-retroviral RNA like sequences (NRVSs) have been discovered in the genome of a wide range of eukaryotes. These are considered as fossil RNA viral elements integrated into host genomes by as-yet-known mechanisms, and in many cases, those fossils are estimated to be millions-of-years-old. It is likely that the number of NRVS records will increase rapidly due to the growing availability of whole-genome sequences for many kinds of eukaryotes. Discovery of the novel NRVSs and understanding of their phylogenetic relationship with modern viral relatives provide important information on deep evolutionary history of RNA virus–host interactions. In this chapter, therefore, the common strategies for the identification and characterization of endogenous NRVSs from plants, insects, and fungi are described.
Key wordsPaleovirology Molecular fossil record Non-retrovirus-like sequence Database search Whole-genome shotgun Genomic PCR Southern blotting Phylogenetic analysis Maximum-likelihood
This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (KAKENHI 40263628, 25252011) (H.K. and N.S.).
- 26.Kuhn JH, Bekal S, Caì Y et al (2013). Proposal for a new family in the order. Arch Virol 158:2209–2226Google Scholar