Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch)
Genetic engineering is an important tool for introducing desired genes into poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch). We describe in this chapter an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for poinsettia. A detailed description of genetic transformation, antibiotic selection, subsequent regeneration via somatic embryogenesis, and rooting as well as molecular and morphological analyses is included. The methodology described here could facilitate the future engineering of poinsettia for research purpose as well as commercial production of poinsettia plants with improved resistance or novel traits.
Key wordsAgrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation Poinsettia Agrobacterium tumefaciens Somatic embryogenesis Binary vector Transgenic plants
Thanks are due to Sissel Haugslien, Dag-Ragnar Blystad, Erling Fløistad, and Carl Spetz for their practical support; CSIRO Plant Industry for providing pHANNIBAL and pART27 vectors; and J. Kristiansen nursery for the poinsettia plants. We are grateful to Dr. Nicholas Clarke for the linguistic correction. This research was supported by the Research Council of Norway grants 147147/140 and 199398 to Dr. Jihong Liu Clarke.
- 1.Ecke P III, Faust JE, Higgins A, Williams J (2004) The Ecke poinsettia manual. Ball, Batavia, ILGoogle Scholar
- 2.Williams J (2005) Poinsettia production. FlowerTech 8:6–9Google Scholar
- 3.USDA (2009) [NASS] Floriculture crops: 2008 summary. Sp Cr 6–1. (http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/current/FlorCrop/FlorCrop-04-23-2009.pdf)
- 4.Deroles SC, Boase MR, Lee CE, Peters TA (2002) Gene transfer to plants. In: Vainstein A (ed) Breeding for ornamentals: classical and molecular approaches. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 156–196Google Scholar
- 7.Yoshikazu T (2004) Visual biotechnology. Blue rose realized by biotechnology. Biosci Ind 62:789–790Google Scholar
- 8.Kamo K, Hammond J, Roh M (1997) Transformation of Gladiolus for disease resistance. J Kor Soc Hort Sci 38:188–193Google Scholar
- 10.Smith F, Chou TS, Eisenreich R, Sanford J, Blowers A, Van Eck J (1997) Production of transgenic poinsettia. US Patent 7,119,262, pp 1–36Google Scholar
- 11.Vik NI, Hvoslef-Eide AK, Gjerde H, Bakke K (2001) Stable transformation of poinsettia via electrophoresis. Acta Hort 560:101–103Google Scholar
- 12.Clarke JL, Klemsdal SS, Fløistad E, Hvoslef-Eide AK, Haugslien S, Moe R, Blystad DR (2006) Genetic engineering of poinsettia with the aim of enhancing its resistance to poinsettia mosaic virus. Acta Hort 722:321–325Google Scholar
- 13.Clarke JL, Spetz C, Haugslien S, Xing S, Dees MW et al (2008) Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, with virus-derived hairpin RNA constructs confers resistance to poinsettia mosaic virus. Plant Cell Rep 27:1027–1038PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Islam MA, Lütken H, Haugslien S, Blystad D-R, Torre S et al (2013) Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants. PLoS One 8:e53377. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053377