Changes in metabolite concentrations in response to specific diseases, treatments, diets, or other factors can be used to understand the complex mechanisms that control and regulate the human body and potentially detect the onset of disease prior to the observation of symptoms in a patient. Different analytical and chemometric platforms are necessary to detect as many metabolites as possible in different biological fluids.
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is a particularly attractive, although still not common, approach for metabolomics for the detection of mainly polar and ionic metabolites. Among its main features, CE provides the capability to separate complex mixtures with high resolution and minimum sample treatment. However, the routine, automated use of CE-MS is not without challenges. In this chapter we describe a well-tested method for fingerprinting serum and urine using CE-TOF-MS. We describe below a sensitive and quite robust method for metabolomics with CE-MS including sample treatment, separation conditions, instrumental setup, and identification of 76 metabolites in the profile. Useful advice for daily practice is also included for every step of the procedure.
Capillary electrophoresis Mass spectrometry Metabolomics Fingerprinting Serum Plasma Urine Biofluids
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more
Shama Naz receiving funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement no. 264864. The authors gratefully also acknowledge the financial support from Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (previously Ciencia y Tecnología) grant MCIT CTQ2011-23562.
Dunn WB, Ellis DI (2005) Metabolomics: Current analytical platforms and methodologies. Trends Anal Chem 24:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barbas C, Moraes EP, Villasenor A (2010) Capillary electrophoresis as a metabolomics tool for non-targeted fingerprinting of biological samples. J Pharm Biomed Anal 53:122–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Monton MR, Soga T (2007) Metabolome analysis by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1168:237–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramautar R, Somsen GW, de Jong GJ (2013) CE-MS for metabolomics: developments and applications in the period 2010-2012. Electrophoresis 34:86–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams MD, Reeves R, Resar LS et al (2013) Metabolomics of colorectal cancer: past and current analytical platforms. Anal Bioanal Chem 405:5013–5030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams BJ, Cameron CJ, Workman R et al (2007) Amino acid profiling in plant cell cultures: an inter-laboratory comparison of CE-MS and GC-MS. Electrophoresis 28: 1371–1379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ullsten S, Danielsson R, Bäckström D et al (2006) Urine profiling using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis. J Chromatogr A 1117: 87–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Staub A, Schappler J, Rudaz S et al (2009) CE–TOF/MS: fundamental concepts, instrumental considerations and applications. Electrophoresis 30:1610–1623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayboroda OA, Neusub C, Pelzing M et al (2007) Amino acid profiling in urine by capillary zone electrophoresis—mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1159:149–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atzei A, Atzori L, Moretti C et al (2011) Metabolomics in paediatric respiratory diseases and bronchiolitis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 24:59–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunn WB, Broadhurst D, Begley P et al (2011) Human Serum Metabolome (HUSERMET) Consortium: Procedures for large-scale metabolic profiling of serum and plasma using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Nat Protoc 6:1060–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naz S, Garcia A, Rusak M et al (2013) Method development and validation for rat serum fingerprinting with CE-MS: application to ventilator-induced-lung-injury study. Anal Bioanal Chem 405:4849–4858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moraes EP, Ruperez FJ, Plaza M et al (2011) Metabolomic assessment with CE-MS of the nutraceutical effect of Cystoseira spp extracts in an animal model. Electrophoresis 32: 2055–2062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dominguez-Alvarez J, Rodriguez-Gonzalo E, Hernandez-Mendez J et al (2011) Programmed nebulizing gas pressure for efficient and stable capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry analysis of anionic compounds in positive separation mode. Anal Chem 83: 2834–2839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar