Ex Vivo Assays to Study Self-Renewal, Long-Term Expansion, and Leukemic Transformation of Genetically Modified Human Hematopoietic and Patient-Derived Leukemic Stem Cells
With the emergence of the concept of the leukemic stem cell (LSC), assays to study them remain pivotal in understanding (leukemic) stem cell biology. Although the in vivo NOD-SCID or NSG xenotransplantation model is currently still the favored assay of choice in most cases, this system has some limitations as well such as its cost-effectiveness, duration, and lack of engraftability of cells from some acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Here, we describe in vitro assays in which long-term expansion and self-renewal of LSCs isolated from AML patients can be evaluated. We have optimized lentiviral transduction procedures in order to stably express genes of interest or stably downmodulate genes using RNAi in primary AML cells, and these approaches are described in detail here. Also, we describe bone marrow stromal coculture systems in which cobblestone area-forming cell activity, self-renewal, long-term expansion, and in vitro myeloid or lymphoid transformation can be evaluated in human CD34+ cells of fetal or adult origin that are engineered to express oncogenes. Together, these tools should allow a further molecular elucidation of derailed signal transduction in LSCs.
Key wordsLeukemic stem cell (LSC) Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Leukemic stem cell self-renewal Ex vivo assay Bone marrow stromal coculture Lentiviral transduction of primary patient cells
We would like to acknowledge all members of the Experimental Hematology lab for helpful discussions. This work was supported by grants from the NWO (VENI 91611105, VIDI 91796312), KWF (2009-4411), and EU (FP7 EuroCSC ITN).
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