Wild Bird Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus

  • Justin D. Brown
  • Rebecca Poulson
  • David E. Stallknecht
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1161)


Avian influenza (AI) viruses have been isolated from a wide-diversity of free-living avian species representing several taxonomic orders. Isolations are most frequently reported from aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, which are believed to be the primordial reservoirs for all AI viruses. Since first recognized in the late 1800s, AI viruses have been an important agent of disease in poultry and, occasionally, of non-gallinaceous birds and mammals. However, recent infections of humans with AI viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus and low pathogenicity H7N9 AI virus in China during 2013, have increased the awareness of their potential to impact agricultural, wildlife, and public health. This chapter is intended to give general concepts and guidelines for planning and implementing surveillance programs for AI virus in wild birds.

Key words

Avian influenza virus Wild birds Surveillance Sampling 



The authors would like to thank everyone at the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study and the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory for their contributions toward the cooperative AI virus research efforts.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Justin D. Brown
    • 1
  • Rebecca Poulson
    • 1
  • David E. Stallknecht
    • 1
  1. 1.Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population HealthCollege of Veterinary Medicine, The University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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