Newcastle Disease Virus Detection and Differentiation from Avian Influenza

  • Patti J. MillerEmail author
  • Mia Kim Torchetti
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1161)


Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious and often fatal disease that affects over 250 bird species worldwide, and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Infections of poultry with virulent strains of APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus) are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Vaccination of poultry species is a key measure in the control of ND. Other APMV-1 viruses of low virulence, which are not used as vaccines, are also often isolated from wild bird species. The APMV-1 virus, like avian influenza virus (AIV), is a hemagglutinating virus (HA) and able to agglutinate chicken red blood cells (RBC). Because the clinical presentation of ND can be difficult to distinguish from disease caused by AIV, techniques for differential diagnosis are essential, as well as the ability to detect mixed infections. When an HA positive virus is detected from virus isolation, additional assays can be performed to determine which virus is present. Both antigenic and molecular methods are necessary as some virulent ND viruses from cormorants in the USA after 2002 have lost their ability to hemagglutinate chicken RBC and molecular methods are needed for identification.

Key words

Newcastle disease virus Avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 Virus isolation Real-time RT-PCR Diagnostics 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases UnitSoutheast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceAthensUSA
  2. 2.Diagnostic Virology LaboratoryNational Veterinary Services Laboratories, US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection ServiceAmesUSA

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