Newcastle Disease Virus Detection and Differentiation from Avian Influenza
Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious and often fatal disease that affects over 250 bird species worldwide, and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Infections of poultry with virulent strains of APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus) are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Vaccination of poultry species is a key measure in the control of ND. Other APMV-1 viruses of low virulence, which are not used as vaccines, are also often isolated from wild bird species. The APMV-1 virus, like avian influenza virus (AIV), is a hemagglutinating virus (HA) and able to agglutinate chicken red blood cells (RBC). Because the clinical presentation of ND can be difficult to distinguish from disease caused by AIV, techniques for differential diagnosis are essential, as well as the ability to detect mixed infections. When an HA positive virus is detected from virus isolation, additional assays can be performed to determine which virus is present. Both antigenic and molecular methods are necessary as some virulent ND viruses from cormorants in the USA after 2002 have lost their ability to hemagglutinate chicken RBC and molecular methods are needed for identification.
Key wordsNewcastle disease virus Avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 Virus isolation Real-time RT-PCR Diagnostics
- 1.Miller PJ, Koch G (2013) Newcastle disease, other avian paramyxoviruses, and avian metapneumovirus infections. In: Swayne DE (ed) Diseases of poultry, 13th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, pp 89–138Google Scholar
- 4.World Animal Health Organization (OIE) (2012) Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals: Newcastle disease in http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.03.14_NEWCASTLE_DIS.pdf. Accessed 2 Aug 2013.
- 6.Rue CA, Susta L, Brown CC, Pasick JM, Swafford SR, Wolf PC, Killian ML, Pedersen JC, Miller PJ, Afonso CL (2010) Evolutionary changes affecting rapid identification of 2008 Newcastle disease viruses isolated from double-crested cormorants. J Clin Microbiol 48:2440–2448PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar