A Method for Screening Mitochondrial Fusogenic Envelopes for Use in Mitochondrial Drug Delivery
Various types of mitochondrial dysfunctions have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. This suggests that mitochondria would be promising therapeutic drug targets and mitochondrial therapy would be expected to be useful for the treatment of various diseases. We have already reported the development of a MITO-Porter, a liposome-based nano-carrier that delivers its cargo to mitochondria via a membrane-fusion mechanism. In our strategy for delivering cargos to mitochondria using a MITO-Porter, the carriers must fuse with the organelle membrane. Here we report on methodology for screening various types of lipid envelopes that have the potential for fusing with a mitochondrial membrane. The method involves monitoring the cancellation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and evaluating membrane fusion between the carriers and mitochondria in living cells by FRET analysis using a spectral imaging fluorescent microscopy system.
Key wordsMitochondria Mitochondrial drug delivery Mitochondrial macromolecule delivery MITO-Porter Membrane fusion Mitochondrial gene therapy Mitochondrial medicine Octaarginine
This work was supported, in part, by the Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) and Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japanese Government (MEXT). We also thank Dr. Milton Feather for his helpful advice in writing the manuscript.
- 5.Endo T, Nakayama Y, Nakai M (1995) Avidin fusion protein as a tool to generate a stable translocation intermediate spanning the mitochondrial membranes. J Biochem 118:753–759Google Scholar
- 20.Shinohara Y, Sagawa I, Ichihara J, Yamamoto K, Terao K, Terada H (1997) Source of ATP for hexokinase-catalyzed glucose phosphorylation in tumor cells: dependence on the rate of oxidative phosphorylation relative to that of extramitochondrial ATP generation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1319:319–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar