In Vitro Generation of Vascular Wall–Typical Mesenchymal Stem Cells (VW-MSC) from Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Through VW-MSC–Specific Gene Transfer

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2155)


Among the adult stem cells, multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) turned out to be a promising option for cell-based therapies for the treatment of various diseases including autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders. MSCs bear a high proliferation and differentiation capability and exert immunomodulatory functions while being still clinically safe. As tissue-resident stem cells, MSCs can be isolated from various tissue including peripheral or umbilical cord blood, placenta, blood, fetal liver, lung, adipose tissue, and blood vessels, although the most commonly used source for MSCs is the bone marrow. However, the proportion of MSCs in primary isolates from adult tissue biopsies is rather low, and therefore MSCs must be intensively expanded in vitro before the MSCs find particular use in therapies that may require extensive and repetitive cell replacement. Therefore, more easily accessible sources of MSCs are needed. Here, we present a detailed protocol to generate tissue-typical MSCs by direct linage conversion using transcription factors defining target MSC identity from murine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

Key words

Mesenchymal stem cells Vascular wall Lineage conversion In vitro generation HOX Differentiation iPSC 



The Jürgen Manchot Stiftung (Düsseldorf, Germany) supported this work.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Cell Biology (Cancer Research), Medical FacultyUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Transfusion MedicineMedical Faculty, University of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany
  3. 3.Institute for Cell Biology (Cancer Research), Medical FacultyUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany

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