Extrusion-Based Bioprinting: Current Standards and Relevancy for Human-Sized Tissue Fabrication

  • Kelsey Willson
  • Dongxu Ke
  • Carlos Kengla
  • Anthony Atala
  • Sean V. MurphyEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2140)


The field of bioengineering has long pursued the goal of fabricating large-scale tissue constructs for use both in vitro and in vivo. Recent technological advances have indicated that bioprinting will be a key technique in manufacturing these specimens. This chapter aims to provide an overview of what has been achieved to date through the use of microextrusion bioprinters and what major challenges still impede progress. Microextrusion printer configurations will be addressed along with critical design characteristics including nozzle specifications and bioink modifications. Significant challenges within the field with regard to achieving long-term cell viability and vascularization, and current research that shows promise in mitigating these challenges in the near future are discussed. While microextrusion is a broad field with many applications, this chapter aims to provide an overview of the field with a focus on its applications toward human-sized tissue constructs.

Key words

Microextrusion printing Bioprinting Cell printing Nozzle Bioink 3D printing Vascularization Rheology 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelsey Willson
    • 1
  • Dongxu Ke
    • 1
  • Carlos Kengla
    • 1
  • Anthony Atala
    • 1
  • Sean V. Murphy
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative MedicineWake Forest UniversityWinston-SalemUSA

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