Exploiting Plug-and-Play Electrochemical Biosensors to Determine the Role of FGF19 in Sorafenib-Mediated Superoxide and Nitric Oxide Production in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

  • Lixia Gao
  • Yong TengEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2138)


Electrochemical biosensors provide rapid, selective, and sensitive diagnostic platforms for detecting and monitoring biochemical processes in living systems in vivo and in vitro, and have been widely applied in various fields of biology and medicine. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor used as a standard therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular basis for sorafenib resistance in HCC remains elusive. Recently, we developed new protocols for an electrochemical biosensor and applied these to monitor the levels of superoxide and nitric oxide produced in HCC cells, in the presence or absence of sorafenib. We also employed electrochemical biosensor to determine the release of profiles of superoxide and nitric oxide in sorafenib-treated HCC cells under the influence of fibroblast growth factor 19 expression levels. Here we present protocols to highlight the utility of electrochemical strategies in drug and gene studies.

Key words

Electrochemical biosensors Sorafenib FGF19 Superoxide Nitric oxide 



This research was supported by NIH grant R03DE028387 and R01DE028351 (to Y.T.).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental College of GeorgiaAugusta UniversityAugustaUSA
  2. 2.Chongqing University of Arts and SciencesChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Georgia Cancer Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of GeorgiaAugusta UniversityAugustaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Medical Laboratory, Imaging and Radiologic Sciences, College of Allied HealthAugusta UniversityAugustaUSA

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