Detention and Identification of Cancer Stem Cells in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Farhadul Islam
  • Vinod Gopalan
  • Alfred K. LamEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2129)


Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of cells associated with cancer initiation, progression, metastasis, therapy resistant, and recurrence. In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), several cell surface and intracellular markers, for example, CD44, ALDH, Pygo2, MAML1, Twist1, Musashi1, side population (SP), CD271, and CD90, have been proposed to identify CSCs. In addition, stem cell markers such as ALDH1, HIWI, Oct3/4, ABCG2, SOX2, SALL4, BMI-1, NANOG, CD133, and podoplanin were associated with pathological stages of cancer, cancer recurrence, prognosis, and therapy resistance of patients with ESCC. Identification and isolation of CSCs could play an important part of improved cancer management regime in ESCC. Furthermore, CSCs may be used as the predictive tool for chemoradiotherapy response in ESCC. Different methods such as in vitro functional assays, cell sorting using various intracellular, and cell surface markers and xenotransplantation techniques are frequently used for the identification and isolation of CSCs in different cancers, including ESCC. However, none of these methods solely can guarantee complete isolation of CSC population. Therefore, a combination of methods is used for reliable detection and isolation of CSCs. Herein, we describe the identification and isolation of CSCs from ESCC cells by cell sorting after Hoechst 33342 staining followed by in vitro functional assays and in vivo mouse xenotransplantation techniques.

Key words

Cancer stem cell Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma In vitro assays CSC identification CSC isolation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farhadul Islam
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vinod Gopalan
    • 1
  • Alfred K. Lam
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Cancer Molecular Pathology of School of MedicineGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of RajshahiRajshahiBangladesh
  3. 3.Cancer Molecular Pathology, School of MedicineGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia

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