With recent advances, fluorescent imaging has gained momentum as an important tool for in vivo imaging. FRET systems consist of molecules that absorb in the near-infrared region which are efficient candidates for in vivo imaging, basic research, and clinical applications. Nontoxic, photostable fluorophores, such as fluorescent proteins and dyes, can successfully be used to visualize spatial and temporal dynamics of living cells. Selected cells to be injected are first tagged with the FRET-based biosensor and then injected to the living animal. Then, these foreign cells in the host body can be visualized under fluorescence microscope via excitation of the fluorophores at the correct wavelength.
Fluorescence Endothelial cell tracking Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) Semi conducting π-conjugated polymers (SPs) Critical limb ischemia (CLI) Suzuki polymerization Semi conducting π-conjugated polymer based nanoparticles (SPNs)
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more
Rao J, Dragulescu-Andrasi A, Yao H (2007) Fluorescence imaging in vivo: recent advances. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kobayashi H, Ogawa M, Alford R et al (2010) New strategies for fluorescent probe design in medical diagnostic imaging. Chem Rev 110:2620–2640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim Y, Jung H-Y, Choe YH et al (2012) High-contrast reversible fluorescence photoswitching of dye-crosslinked dendritic nanoclusters in living vertebrates. Angew Chem Int Ed 51:2878–2882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mao D, Liu J, Ji S et al (2017) Amplification of near-infrared fluorescence in semiconducting polymer nanoprobe for grasping the behaviors of systemically administered endothelial cells in ischemia treatment. Biomaterials 143:109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sekar RB, Periasamy A (2003) Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy imaging of live cell protein localizations. J Cell Biol 160:629–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Day RN, Davidson MW (2012) Fluorescent proteins for FRET microscopy: monitoring protein interactions in living cells. BioEssays 34:341–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li Y, Liu J, Liu B, Tomczak N (2012) Highly emissive PEG-encapsulated conjugated polymer nanoparticles. Nanoscale 4:5694–5702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ranger M, Rondeau D, Leclerc M (1997) New well-defined poly(2,7-fluorene) derivatives: photoluminescence and base doping. Macromolecules 30:7686–7691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blouin N, Michaud A, Gendron D et al (2007) Toward a rational design of poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives for solar cells. J Am Chem Soc 130:732–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verrecchio A, Germann MW, Schick BP et al (2000) Design of peptides with high affinities for heparin and endothelial cell proteoglycans. J Biol Chem 275:7701–7707CrossRefGoogle Scholar