Energy Transfer Systems for In Vivo Tracking

  • Raul Neri
  • Asanka Sajini Yapa
  • Stefan H. BossmannEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2126)


With recent advances, fluorescent imaging has gained momentum as an important tool for in vivo imaging. FRET systems consist of molecules that absorb in the near-infrared region which are efficient candidates for in vivo imaging, basic research, and clinical applications. Nontoxic, photostable fluorophores, such as fluorescent proteins and dyes, can successfully be used to visualize spatial and temporal dynamics of living cells. Selected cells to be injected are first tagged with the FRET-based biosensor and then injected to the living animal. Then, these foreign cells in the host body can be visualized under fluorescence microscope via excitation of the fluorophores at the correct wavelength.

Key words

Fluorescence Endothelial cell tracking Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) Semi conducting π-conjugated polymers (SPs) Critical limb ischemia (CLI) Suzuki polymerization Semi conducting π-conjugated polymer based nanoparticles (SPNs) 


  1. 1.
    Rao J, Dragulescu-Andrasi A, Yao H (2007) Fluorescence imaging in vivo: recent advances. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ntziachristos V (2006) Fluorescence molecular imaging. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 8:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kobayashi H, Ogawa M, Alford R et al (2010) New strategies for fluorescent probe design in medical diagnostic imaging. Chem Rev 110:2620–2640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim Y, Jung H-Y, Choe YH et al (2012) High-contrast reversible fluorescence photoswitching of dye-crosslinked dendritic nanoclusters in living vertebrates. Angew Chem Int Ed 51:2878–2882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mao D, Liu J, Ji S et al (2017) Amplification of near-infrared fluorescence in semiconducting polymer nanoprobe for grasping the behaviors of systemically administered endothelial cells in ischemia treatment. Biomaterials 143:109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sekar RB, Periasamy A (2003) Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy imaging of live cell protein localizations. J Cell Biol 160:629–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Day RN, Davidson MW (2012) Fluorescent proteins for FRET microscopy: monitoring protein interactions in living cells. BioEssays 34:341–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li Y, Liu J, Liu B, Tomczak N (2012) Highly emissive PEG-encapsulated conjugated polymer nanoparticles. Nanoscale 4:5694–5702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ranger M, Rondeau D, Leclerc M (1997) New well-defined poly(2,7-fluorene) derivatives: photoluminescence and base doping. Macromolecules 30:7686–7691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blouin N, Michaud A, Gendron D et al (2007) Toward a rational design of poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives for solar cells. J Am Chem Soc 130:732–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Verrecchio A, Germann MW, Schick BP et al (2000) Design of peptides with high affinities for heparin and endothelial cell proteoglycans. J Biol Chem 275:7701–7707CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raul Neri
    • 1
  • Asanka Sajini Yapa
    • 1
  • Stefan H. Bossmann
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Johnson Cancer Research CenterKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Johnson Cancer CenterKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA

Personalised recommendations