In Vivo Epithelial Metabolic Imaging Using a Topical Fluorescent Glucose Analog

  • Paula Villarreal
  • Rahul Pal
  • Gracie VargasEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2126)


The demanding metabolic needs of cancer cells are met by aerobic glycolysis. While whole-body PET imaging methods exist for evaluating this metabolic response, these are not ideal for local, more detailed regions such as mucosal surfaces. Fluorescence imaging of glucose analogs with similarities to radiolabeled deoxyglucose used in PET, namely, fluorescent 2-deoxy-2-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]-d-glucose (2-NBDG), offers such an alternative, particularly as this glucose analog may be delivered by local topical delivery. In this chapter, methods for in vivo epithelial imaging in a preclinical hamster model for oral cancer and oral epithelial dysplasia are described. Outlined are methods for preparation and in vivo delivery of 2-NBDG by topical application to the oral mucosa followed by fluorescence imaging to compare fluorescence responses between neoplasia and control mucosa or to monitor changes in fluorescence signal with time in both groups.

Key words

Optical Imaging Fluorescence Glycolysis Metabolism Intravital Oral squamous cell carcinoma Epithelial dysplasia Epithelial cancer 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Anatomy, Advanced Bio-optics Imaging Lab, and Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences GroupThe University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  2. 2.Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts General HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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