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A Brief Introduction to Avian Influenza Virus

  • Erica SpackmanEmail author
Protocol
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Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2123)

Abstract

The earliest recorded cases of what was likely high-pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870s. Avian influenza infection has been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of poultry production. Infection of poultry with either low pathogenic (LP) or highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can result in substantial economic consequences. Productivity can be reduced directly and indirectly because of disease leading to decreased egg or meat yield, mortality, vaccination costs, and restricted trade. Aquatic birds are the natural hosts for AIV, and infection tends to be subclinical, although some strains of HPAIV can cause losses in domestic ducks. Biosecurity and vaccination are the most common methods of preventing infection of poultry. Approaches to AIV control vary widely, but elimination of the disease in poultry is a common goal. The basics of AIV biology, clinical disease, molecular aspects, and AIV detection are briefly reviewed.

Key words

Avian influenza virus Type A influenza Orthomyxovirus Host range Pathogenesis Molecular characteristics 

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Unit, US National Poultry Research CenterUS Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceAthensUSA

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