Symptoms of Virus-Infected Plants

  • Alangar Ishwara Bhat
  • Govind Pratap Rao
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)


Symptoms are outward expression of plants indicating deviation from the normal physiological, biochemical and biological function. Symptoms may be due to biotic or abiotic factors. Viruses are one among several biotic factors that can cause different disease symptoms in plants. All viruses cause systemic infections in susceptible plants. Symptoms caused by viruses fall into two categories, namely internal and external. In the present chapter, both external and internal symptoms caused by viruses are explained.

Key words

External symptoms Internal symptoms Leaf curl Local lesion Mosaic mottle Chlorosis Necrosis Ringspot Stunting Pin wheel inclusions 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alangar Ishwara Bhat
    • 1
  • Govind Pratap Rao
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Crop ProtectionICAR-Indian Institute of Spices ResearchKozhikodeIndia
  2. 2.Division of Plant PathologyICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

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