Microscopic Methods for Analysis of Macrophage-Induced Tunneling Nanotubes
Macrophages are known to play multiple roles in the breast cancer microenvironment including the promotion of tumor cell invasion that is dependent on soluble factors or through direct contact. Macrophages can also enhance the production of Tunneling Nanotubes (TNTs) in tumor cells which can be mimicked using macrophage-conditioned medium. TNTs are long thin F-actin structures that connect two or more cells together that have been found in many different cell types including macrophages and tumor cells and have been implicated in enhancing tumor cells functions, such as invasion. Here we describe basic procedures used to stimulate tumor cell TNT formation through macrophage-conditioned medium along with methods for quantifying TNTs.
Key wordsTunneling nanotubes Macrophages Tumor cell Microscopy Conditioned medium
- 9.Carter KP, Hanna S, Genna A et al (2019) Macrophage induced tumor cell tunneling nanotubes enhance tumor cell 3D invasion. Cancer Rep, 28 August 2019. https://doi.org/10.1002/cnr2.1213