FREMSA: A Method That Provides Direct Evidence of the Interaction between microRNA and mRNA

  • Dianke YuEmail author
  • Si Chen
  • Dongying Li
  • Bridgett Knox
  • Lei Guo
  • Baitang Ning
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2102)


microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate the expression of enzymes responsible for activation or detoxification of xenobiotics and toxicants. miRNAs are dysregulated in response to environmental exposure and have been implicated in toxicological events. Many in vivo and in vitro experimental approaches have been employed to delineate the mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate target genes; however, all these methods provide only indirect evidence for the interaction between miRNAs and their counterpart mRNA molecules. In this chapter, we describe a novel approach—a fluorescent-based RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay (FREMSA) that is a sensitive and time-saving method, with a high specificity, to visualize the interactions among miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins, as direct evidence of mRNA/miRNA complex formation.

Key words

Fluorescent-based RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay miRNA target prediction miRNA–RNA interaction 



The information in these materials is not a formal dissemination of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dianke Yu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Si Chen
    • 1
  • Dongying Li
    • 1
  • Bridgett Knox
    • 1
  • Lei Guo
    • 1
  • Baitang Ning
    • 1
  1. 1.National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug AdministrationJeffersonUSA
  2. 2.School of Public Health, Qingdao UniversityQingdaoChina

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