Microbial whole cells are efficient, ecological, and low-cost catalysts that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical, environmental, and alimentary industries, among others.
Microorganism immobilization is a good way to carry out the bioprocess under preparative conditions. The main advantages of this methodology lie in their high operational stability, easy upstream separation, and bioprocess scale-up feasibility.
Cell entrapment is the most widely used technique for whole cell immobilization. This technique—in which the cells are included within a rigid network—is porous enough to allow the diffusion of substrates and products, protects the selected microorganism from the reaction medium, and has high immobilization efficiency (100% in most cases).
Nedovic V, Willaert R (2004) Fundamentals of cell immobilisation, vol 1. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trelles JA, Valino AL, Runza V, Lewkowicz ES, Iribarren AM (2005) Screening of catalytically active microorganisms for the synthesis of 6-modified purine nucleosides. Biotechnol Lett 27:759–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández-Lucas J, Condezo LA, Martinez- Lagos F, Sinisterra JV (2007) Synthesis of 2′-deoxyibosylnucleosides using new 2′-deoxyribosyltransferase microorganism producers. Enzym Microb Technol 40:1147–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park JK, Chang HN (2000) Microencapsulation of microbial cells. Biotechnol Adv 18:303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van der Sluis C, Mulder AN, Grolle KC, Engbers GH, ter Schure EG, Tramper J, Wijffels RH (2000) Immobilized soy-sauce yeasts: development and characterization of a new polyethylene-oxide support. J Biotechnol 80:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hung CP, Lo H-F, Hsu WH, Chen SC, Lin LL (2008) Immobilization of Escherichia coli novablue γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in Ca-alginate- κ -carrageenan beads. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 150:157–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hae S (2012) Agarose-gel-immobilized recombinant bacterial biosensors for simple and disposable on-site detection of phenolic compounds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93:1895–1904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yujian W, Xiaojuan Y, Wei T, Hongyu L (2007) High-rate ferrous iron oxidation by immobilized Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans with complex of PVA and sodium alginate. J Microbiol Methods 68:212–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moreno-Garrido I (2008) Microalgae immobilization: current techniques and uses. Bioresour Technol 99:3949–3964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hulst AC, Tramper J, Van’t Riet K, Westerbeek JM (1985) A new technique for the production of immobilized biocatalyst in large quantities. Biotechnol Bioeng 27:870–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arvizu-Higuera DL, Hernández-Carmona G, Rodríguez-Montesinos YE (2002) Parameters affecting the conversion of alginic acid to sodium alginate. Cienc Mar 28:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Britos CN, Cappa VA, Rivero CW, Sambeth JE, Lozano ME, Trelles JA (2012) Biotransformation of halogenated 2′-deoxyribosides by immobilized lactic acid bacteria. J Mol Catal B Enzym 79:49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ha J, Engler CR, Wild JR (2009) Biodegradation of coumaphos, chlorferon, and diethylthiophosphate using bacteria immobilized in Ca-alginate gel beads. Bioresour Technol 100:1138–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yujian W, Xiaojuan Y, Hongyu L, Wei T (2006) Immobilization of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans with complex of PVA an sodium alginate. Polym Degrad Stabil 91:2408–2414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jeon C, Park JY, Yoo YJ (2002) Characteristics of metal removal using carboxylated alginic acid. Water Res 36:1814–1824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rivero CW, Britos CN, Lozano ME, Sinisterra JV, Trelles JA (2012) Green biosynthesis of floxuridine by immobilized microorganisms. FEMS Microbiol Lett 331:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar