Osmotic Treatment for Quantifying Cell Wall Elasticity in the Sepal of Arabidopsis thaliana
Elastic properties of the cell wall play a key role in regulating plant growth and morphogenesis; however, measuring them in vivo remains a challenge. Although several new methods have recently become available, they all have substantial drawbacks. Here we describe a detailed protocol for osmotic treatments, which is based on the idea of releasing the turgor pressure within the cell and measuring the resulting deformation. When placed in hyperosmotic solution, cells lose water via osmosis and shrink. Confocal images of the tissue, taken before and after this treatment, are quantified using high-resolution surface projections in MorphoGraphX. The cell shrinkage observed can then be used to estimate cell wall elasticity. This allows qualitative comparisons of cell wall properties within organs or between genotypes and can be combined with mechanical simulations to give quantitative estimates of the cells’ Young’s moduli. We use the abaxial sepal of Arabidopsis thaliana as an easily accessible model system to present our approach, but it can potentially be used on many other plant organs. The main challenges of this technique are choosing the optimal concentration of the hyperosmotic solution and producing high-quality confocal images (with cell walls visualized) good enough for segmentation in MorphoGraphX.
Key wordsPlasmolysis Cell wall Shrinkage Biomechanics Sepal
We thank Daniel Kierzkowski for guidance in tissue dissection and Gabriella Mosca and Mingyuan Zhou for comments on the manuscript.
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