Multiple Approaches for Enhancing Neural Activity to Promote Neurite Outgrowth of Retinal Explants

  • Chuan-Chin ChiaoEmail author
  • Chin-I Lin
  • Meng-Jung Lee
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2092)


Activity is important for neural development and regeneration. Enhancing neural activity can facilitate axon regrowth of retinal ganglion cells. Here, we describe various methods, including electrical stimulation, pharmacological manipulation, and optogenetics, to elevate neural activity of retinal explants in mice and to analyze their effects on promoting neurite outgrowth in organotypic culture.

Key words

Retinal ganglion cells Axon regeneration Electrical stimulation Optogenetics Organotypic culture 



We thank Dr. Chih-Tien Wang for kindly providing us with the recipe for culturing retinal explants. We also thank Dr. Ron Meyer and Ms. Jill Miotke for providing us with their laboratory protocols for the fixation and immunostaining of retinal explants. We appreciate Mr. Yueh-Chun Tsai in assisting us to assemble the Arduino microcontroller board for controlling blue light stimulation. This project was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan, MOST-107-2311-B-007-002-MY3 (to C.C.C.).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Systems NeuroscienceNational Tsing Hua UniversityHsinchuTaiwan
  2. 2.Natural and Medical Sciences InstituteUniversity of TübingenReutlingenGermany
  3. 3.Multi Channel Systems GmbHReutlingenGermany
  4. 4.Graduate Training Centre of NeuroscienceUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany

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