Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA) High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) Mass Spectrometry for In Situ Analysis of Intact Proteins

  • Rian L. Griffiths
  • Klaudia I. Kocurek
  • Helen J. CooperEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2084)


Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) is an ambient mass spectrometry technique which enables direct analysis of analytes from solid substrates. LESA is particularly suitable for the analysis of intact proteins from biological substrates such as thin tissue sections and bacterial colonies growing on agar. Nevertheless, these substrates present a challenge for LESA protein analysis owing to their inherent complexity. It is therefore beneficial to hyphenate LESA with a gas phase separation technique. One such technique is high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility (FAIMS), in which ions are separated according to their different mobilities in high and low electric fields. Here, we describe the protocols for LESA FAIMS mass spectrometry of intact proteins in thin tissue sections and bacterial colonies.

Key words

LESA FAIMS Proteins Bacterial colonies Tissue 



H.J.C. and R.L.G. were funded by the EPSRC (EP/L023490/1). K.I.K. was in receipt of an EPSRC studentship in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rian L. Griffiths
    • 1
  • Klaudia I. Kocurek
    • 2
  • Helen J. Cooper
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.School of PharmacyUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryTexas A&M University, College StationTexasUSA
  3. 3.School of BiosciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

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