Neuropathological Techniques to Investigate Central Nervous System Sections in Multiple Sclerosis
Immunohistochemical techniques (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) are widely used techniques to study the expression of proteins and messenger RNAs in tissues and are extremely important to confirm and interpret biochemical and molecular results from the same tissues. Investigation of human brain by IHC and ISH therefore still plays an important role in the elucidation of pathogenetic mechanisms in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In this review we describe the processing of human brain tissues as well as basic and advanced immunohistochemical staining and ISH techniques used for neuropathological analysis of such pathological brains.
KeywordsImmunohistochemistry In situ hybridization Neuropathology Multiple sclerosis Paraffin embedded Antigen retrieval
We thank Ulrike Köck and Marianne Leißer for their technical assistance and their help with the writing of the various protocols.
- 13.Hart BA, Bauer J, Muller HJ, Melchers B, Nicolay K, Brok H et al (1998) Histopathological characterization of magnetic resonance imaging-detectable brain white matter lesions in a primate model of multiple sclerosis—a correlative study in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Am J Pathol 153:649–663PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Warford A, Akbar H, Riberio D (2014) Antigen retrieval, blocking, detection and visualisation systems in immunohistochemistry: a review and practical evaluation of tyramide and rolling circle amplification systems. Methods pii: S1046-2023(14)00094-2Google Scholar