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Since 1985, Symbiosis publishes original research that contributes to the understanding of symbiotic interactions in a wide range of associations at the molecular, cellular and organismic level.  Reviews and short communications on well-known or new symbioses are welcomed as are book reviews. This spectrum of papers aims to encourage and enhance interactions among researchers in this rapidly expanding field.


Topics of interest include nutritional interactions; mutual regulatory and morphogenetic effects; structural co-adaptations; interspecific recognition; specificity; ecological adaptations; evolutionary consequences of symbiosis; and methods used for symbiotic research.


This is a transformative journal, you may have access to funding.

  • David H.S. Richardson
Impact factor
2.5 (2022)
5 year impact factor
2.9 (2022)
Submission to first decision (median)
20 days
118,485 (2022)

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Journal updates

  • CALL FOR PAPERS: In Honor of the Legacy of Dr. Lynn Margulis

    Submission Deadline: April 30, 2022 | Expected Early 2023
    We seek contributions that build on the legacy of Dr. Lynn Margulis and explore the new directions and frontiers that have emerged directly or indirectly from the theory of symbiogenesis. In addition to Original Research articles, we also seek Review Articles and articles with a shorter format, including Ideas & Perspectives, and Natural History Notes (shorter research articles that introduce new ideas and hypotheses). Students and Early Career Researchers are especially encouraged to submit an Original Research article, Review article or an Ideas & Perspectives article.

  • FEATURED PAPER: Robert Kent Trench (1940–2021): a life devoted to symbiotic mutualisms and seeking nature’s truth

    Freely accessible until April 1, 2022
    Professor Robert (Bob) Kent Trench’s research career brought together multiple disciplines in the study of mutualistic symbioses that are crucial to understanding the physiology, ecology, and co-evolution of metazoan and protist associations, many of which are beneficial to the Earth’s biosphere. Through the development and use of complementary techniques, he pioneered important discoveries about metabolically coupled interactions between “plants” and animals.

  • Latest Special Issue: Volume 82, issue 1-2, November 2020

    Title: Special issue dedicated to the World Symbiosis Day 2020

    Issue editors: Manju M. Gupta & David H.S. Richardson

    This special issue is part of the celebration by the International Symbiosis Society on World Symbiosis Day held the 30thJuly 2020 online.

  • Students & Early Career Researchers

    As a student or ECR (defined as being within one year of award of their PhD degree) listed as first author of any article type accepted, you will receive a voucher for free access to any Springer publication in eBook form (up to a maximum value of 250 Euros/US dollars, and maximum one per year) in perpetuity, and your article will be made freely accessible for 8 weeks after online first publication.

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