Implications for Policy and Practice
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We began our research on worldwide cases of marine ecosystem-based management (MEBM) assuming that we would find exemplars that could be used to create a model process, but those exemplars proved elusive. There is no single way to advance MEBM; rather, there are multiple ways to incorporate an MEBM perspective into management. We observed many places where people were trying to advance ecosystem considerations in decision making, following different paths, responding to different issues, and employing different strategies. All were steadfast in their insistence that they were still trying to figure it out. Yet their efforts reveal valuable insights about the critical factors that enable and sustain an MEBM process.