Balancing Top-Down Authority with Bottom-Up Engagement in the Florida Keys and Channel Islands



Formal marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered by many to be the holy grail of marine conservation. Whether they are called marine sanctuaries, marine reserves, no-take zones, or the like, MPAs are generally established by law and have specific regulatory and management authorities. Many have an explicit mandate for ecosystem-based management, and their ability to restrict use enables protection at a level not achievable by most marine conservation initiatives.


Marine Protected Area Marine Reserve Channel Island Monroe County Wildlife Conservation Commission 
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© Julia M. Wondolleck and Steven L. Yaffee 2017

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