Balancing Top-Down Authority with Bottom-Up Engagement in the Florida Keys and Channel Islands
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Formal marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered by many to be the holy grail of marine conservation. Whether they are called marine sanctuaries, marine reserves, no-take zones, or the like, MPAs are generally established by law and have specific regulatory and management authorities. Many have an explicit mandate for ecosystem-based management, and their ability to restrict use enables protection at a level not achievable by most marine conservation initiatives.