The Human Animal



Like a scientist in a white lab coat, a laboratory mouse instantly conjures up images of medical research. Yet despite the mouse’s iconic position in the scientific community, it may soon be replaced by the zebrafish as the laboratory animal of choice. Why might this cold-blooded fish prove more valuable than the furry little warm-blooded icon, and how can this fish species, so different from our own, play a role in medical or toxicological research?


Personal Care Product Coaxial Cable Giant Axon Toxicological Research Elemental Building Block 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adkins, R. M., E. L. Gelke, D. Rowe, and R. L. Honeycutt. “Molecular Phylogeny and Divergence Time Estimates for Major Rodent Groups: Evidence for Multiple Genes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 18 (2001): 777–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, P. L. R. “Laboratory Invertebrates: Only Spineless, or Spineless and Painless?” ILAR Journal 52 (2011): 121–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berman, H. M., L. F. Ten Eyck, D. S. Goodsell, N. M. Haste, A. Kornev, and S. S. Taylor. “The cAMP Binding Domain: An Ancient Signaling Module.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102 (2005): 45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beyer, L. A., B. D. Beck, and T. A. Lewandowski. “Historical Perspective on the Use of Animal Bioassays to Predict Carcinogenicity: Evolution in Design and Recognition of Utility.” Critical Reviews in Toxicology 41 (2011): 321–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cohen, S. M., L. L. Arnold, M. Cano, M. Ito, E. M. Garland, and R. A. Shaw. “Calcium Phosphate-Containing Precipitate and the Carcinogenicity of Sodium Salts in Rats.” Carcinogenesis 21 (2000): 783–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gold, L. S., T. H. Slone, N. B. Manley, and L. Bernstein. “Target Organs in Chronic Bioassays of 533 Chemical Carcinogens.” Environmental Health Perspectives 93 (1991): 233–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gold, L. S., L. Bernstein, R. Magaw, and T. H. Slone. “Interspecies Extrapolation in Carcinogenesis: Prediction between Rats and Mice.” Environmental Health Perspectives 81 (1989): 211–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Harvey-Clark, C. “IACUC Challenges in Invertebrate Research.” ILAR Journal 52 (2011): 213–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hurst, L. D., and N. G. Smith. “Do Essential Genes Evolve Slowly?” Current Biology 9 (1999): 747–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jordan, I. K., I. B. Rogozin, Y. I. Wolf, and E. V. Koonin. “Essential Genes Are More Evolutionarily Conserved than Are Nonessential Genes in Bacteria.” Genome Research 12 (2002): 962–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kawakami, T., R. Ishimura, K. Nohara, K. Takeda, C. Tohyama, and S. Ohsa-ko. “Differential Susceptibilities of Holtzman and Sprague-Dawley Rats to Fetal Death and Placental Dysfunction Induced by 2,3,7,8-teterachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) despite the Identical Primary Structure of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor.” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 212 (2006): 224–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mather, J. A. “Philosophical Background of Attitudes toward the Treatment of Invertebrates.” ILAR Journal 52 (2011): 205–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Putz, O., C. B. Schwartz, S. Kim, G. A. LeBlanc, R. L. Cooper, and G. S. Prins. “Neonatal Low- and High-Dose Exposure to Estradiol Benzoate in the Male Rat: I. Effects on the Prostate Gland.” Biology of Reproduction 65 (2001): 1496–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Putz, O., C. B. Schwartz, G. A. LeBlanc, R. L. Cooper, and G. S. Prins. “Neonatal Low- and High-Dose Exposure to Estradiol Benzoate in the Male Rat: II. Effects on Male Puberty and the Reproductive Tract.” Biology of Reproduction 65 (2001): 1506–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rand-Weaver, M., L. Margiotta-Casaluci, A. Patel, G. H. Panter, S. F. Owen, and J. P. Sumpter. “The Read-Across Hypothesis and Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals.” Environmental Science and Technology 47 (2013): 11384–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rinaldi, J., J. Wu, J. Yang, C. Y. Ralston, B. Sankaran, S. Moreno, and S. S. Taylor. “Structure of Yeast Regulatory Subunit: A Glimpse into the Evolution of PKA Signaling.” Structure 18 (2010): 1471–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rothen, D., S. Baran, and M. Perret-Gentil. “Are Zebrafish the New Mice?” ALN magazine (2014). Scholar
  18. Vargo-Gogola, T., and J. M. Rosen. “Modeling Breast Cancer: One Size Does Not Fit All.” Nature Reviews Cancer 7 (2007): 659–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Alan Kolok 2016

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations