Modern Poisons pp 139-147 | Cite as

Determining Sex: Chemicals and Reproduction



Recent studies that have focused on the response of fish to natural and anthropogenic environmental contamination have yielded some surprising results. For example, the recent seeding of an experimental lake in northwestern Ontario with ethynylestradiol, the primary synthetic estrogen found in human birth control pills, led to the collapse of the fathead minnow population that was living in the lake. In a similar vein, male fish collected downstream from wastewater treatment plants in the United Kingdom were found to experience differing levels of intersex, the condition in which mature ovarian follicles and mature spermatozoa occur in the same individual. More disturbingly, the intersex males were reproductively compromised, being able to breed with variable levels of success depending upon the severity of the intersex.


Sexual Differentiation Wolffian Duct Gonadal Differentiation Experimental Lake Internal Genitalia 
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© Alan Kolok 2016

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