Advertisement

Eastern Mongolian Grassland Steppe

  • Evan H. Girvetz
  • Robert McDonald
  • Michael Heiner
  • Joseph Kiesecker
  • Galbadrakh Davaa
  • Chris Pague
  • Matthew Durnin
  • Enkhtuya Oidov
Chapter

Abstract

Nomadic livestock herders have coexisted with migratory wildlife in Mongolian grasslands for centuries, but both are now threatened by a combination of climate change, overgrazing, and increased extractive development (i.e., mining and petroleum). Both people and wildlife depend on grassland productivity for their survival, but increasing temperatures are projected to drive higher rates of evapotranspiration leading to moisture stress and decreased productivity. Combining ecoregional assessments with ecosystem-based adaptation strategies—such as the use of grass banks and sustainable grazing management—has the potential to help herders cope with climate change impacts and maintain sustainable livelihoods into the future. Accomplishing this will require coordinated regional planning that identifies where to implement specific on-the-ground conservation strategies to address climate change impacts such as desertification, soil loss, water scarcity, and overgrazing.

Keywords

Climate Change Impact Dust Storm Aridity Index Gobi Desert Grazing Management 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Hoekstra, J. M., T. M. Boucher, T. H. Ricketts, and C. Roberts. 2005. “Confronting a Biome Crisis: Global Disparities of Habitat Loss and Protection.” Ecology Letters 8:23–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Girvetz, E. H., C. Zganjar, G. T. Raber, E. P. Maurer, P. Kareiva, and J. J. Lawler. 2009. “Applied Climate-change Analysis: The Climate Wizard Tool.” PLoS One 4:12, e8320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Yu, F., K. P. Price, J. Ellis, J. J. Feddema, and P. Shi. 2004. “Interannual Variations of the Grassland Boundaries Bordering the Eastern Edges of the Gobi Desert in Central Asia.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 25:327–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Zhang, G., Y. Kang, G. Han, and K. Sakurai. 2011. “Effect of Climate Change over the Past Half Century on the Distribution, Extent and NPP of Ecosystems of Inner Mongolia.” Global Change Biology 17:377–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. MNET (Ministry of Nature, Environment, and Tourism). 2009. “Mongolia Assessment Report on Climate Change 2009.” Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: MNET.Google Scholar
  6. Olson, D. M., E. Dinerstein, E. D. Wikramanayake, N. D. Burgess, G. V. N. Powell, E. C. Underwood, J. A. D’Amico, et al. 2001. “Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Worlds: A New Map of Life on Earth.” Bioscience 51:933–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fernandez-Gimenez, M. E. 2000. “The Role of Mongolian Nomadic Pastoralists’ Ecological Knowledge in Rangeland Management.” Ecological Applications 10:1318–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Angerer, J., G. Han, I. Fujisaki, and K. Havstad. 2008. “Climate Change and Ecoystems of Asia with Emphasis on Inner Mongolia and Mongolia.” Rangelands 30:46–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Myagmarsuren, D. 2008. Mongolia’s Protected Areas. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: Mongolian Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  10. Heiner, M., G. Dava, J. Kiesecker, B. McKenney, J. Evans, T. Enkhtsetseg, Z. Dash, et al. 2011. Identifying Conservation Priorities in the Face of Future Development: Applying Development by Design in the Grasslands of Mongolia. Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy.Google Scholar
  11. Moore, J., S. Antenen, G. Davaa, C Ferree, D. Batbold, M. DePhilip, C. Pague, Y. Onon, D. Sanjmyatav, and R. McCready. 2010. Biodiversity Gap Analysis of the Grasslands and Forest Steppe of Central and Eastern Mongolia: Setting the Stage for Establishment of an Ecologically Representative Protected Areas Network for Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: The Nature Conservancy.Google Scholar
  12. Mueller, T., K. A. Olson, T. K. Fuller, G. B. Schaller, M. G. Murray, and P. Leimgruber. 2008. “In Search of Forage: Predicting Dynamic Habitats of Mongolian Gazelles Using Satellite-based Estimates of Vegetation Productivity.” Journal of Applied Ecology 45:649–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Olson, K. A. 2008. “Distribution and Ecology of Mongolian Gazelles (Procapra gutturosa Pallas 1777) in Mongolia’s Eastern Steppe.” Amherst: University of Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  14. Burke, E. J., S. J. Brown, and N. Christidis. 2006. “Modeling the Recent Evolution of Global Drought and Projections for the Twenty-first Century with the Hadley Centre Climate Model.” Journal of Hydrometeorology 7:1113–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Asner, G. P., J. Elmore, L. P. Olander, R. E. Martin, and A. T. Harris. 2004. “Grazing Systems, Ecosystem Responses, and Global Change.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 29:261–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sivakumar, M. V. K. 2007. “Interactions between Climate and Desertification.” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142: 143–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Zhang, X. Y., S. L. Gong, T. L. Zhao, R. Arimoto, Y. Q. Wang, and Z. J. Zhou. 2003. “Sources of Asian Dust and Role of Climate Change Versus Desertification in Asian Dust Emission.” Geophysical Research Letters 30:8–1–8-4.Google Scholar
  18. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program). 1992. World Atlas of Desertification. London: UNEP.Google Scholar
  19. Gao, X. J. and F. Giorgi. 2008. “Increased Aridity in the Mediterranean Region under Greenhouse Gas Forcing Estimated from High Resolution Simulations with a Regional Climate Model.” Global and Planetary Change 62:95–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bannayan, M., S. Sanjani, A. Alizadeh, S. S. Lotfabadi, and A. Mohamadian. 2010. “Association between Climate Indices, Aridity Index, and Rainfed Crop Yield in Northeast of Iran.” Field Crops Research 118:105–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. IPCC-SRES (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-Special Report on Emission Scenarios). 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. A Special Report of Working Group III of the IPCC. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. SCBD (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity). 2009. Connecting Biodiversity and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: Report of the Second Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Technical Series No. 41.Google Scholar
  23. Vignola, R., B. Locatelli, C. Martinez, and P. Imbach. 2009. “Ecosystem-based Adaptation to Climate Change: What Role for Policy-makers, Society and Scientists?” Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 14:691–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Postel, S. L. and B. H. Thompson. 2005. “Watershed Protection: Capturing the Benefits of Nature’s Water Supply Services.” Natural Resources Forum 29:98–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Groves, C. R. 2003. Drafting a Conservation Blueprint: A Practitioner’s Guide to Planning for Biodiversity. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  26. Game, E. T., C. Groves, M. Andersen, M. Cross, C. Enquist, Z. Ferdaña, E. Girvetz, et al. 2010. Incorporating Climate Change Adaptation into Regional Conservation Assessments. Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy. conserveonline.org/workspaces/climateadaptation/documents/incorporating-cc-adaptation-into-regional-0 (accessed January 12, 2012).Google Scholar
  27. dAc (Distributed Active Archive Center). 2010. MODIS Global Subsets: Data Subsetting and Visualization. Distributed by Active Archive Center for Biogeochemical Dynamics. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.Google Scholar
  28. Holechek, J., R. D. Pieper, and C. H. Herbel. 1989. Range Management: Principles and Practices. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  29. Winters, A. 2001. “Three Tools for Rangeland Management.” In Rangeland Management Pilot Project, Land Use and Range Management Workshop. Sergelen Soum, Mongolia.Google Scholar
  30. Leisher, C., S. Hess, T. M. Boucher, P. van Beukering, and M. Sanjayan. 2012. “Measuring the Impacts of Community-based Grasslands Conservation in Mongolia’s Gobi.” PLoS ONE 7:e30991.Google Scholar
  31. Gripne, S. L. 2005. “Grassbanks: Bartering for Conservation.” Rangelands 27:24–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hess, S., T. Boucher, A. Dabrovskyy, E. Ter Hoorn, and P. Van Beukering. 2010. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Community-based Conservation in Mongolia’s Gobi Desert. Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy.Google Scholar
  33. Leisher, C., R. Brouwer, T. M. Boucher, R. Vogelij, W. R. Bainbridge, et al. 2011. “Striking a Balance: Socioeconomic Development and Conservation in Grassland through Community-Based Zoning.” PLoS ONE 6:e28807.Google Scholar
  34. Kiesecker, J. M., H. Copeland, A. Pocewicz, and B. McKenney. 2010. “Development by Design: Blending Landscape-level Planning with the Mitigation Hierarchy.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8:261–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Island Press 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evan H. Girvetz
  • Robert McDonald
    • 1
  • Michael Heiner
    • 2
  • Joseph Kiesecker
    • 2
  • Galbadrakh Davaa
    • 2
  • Chris Pague
    • 2
  • Matthew Durnin
  • Enkhtuya Oidov
    • 3
  1. 1.Harvard UniversityUSA
  2. 2.The Nature ConservancyColoradoUSA
  3. 3.The Nature ConservancyMongolia

Personalised recommendations