Advertisement

Likely Responses of Native and Invasive Salmonid Fishes to Climate Change in the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian Mountains

  • Bradley B. Shepard
  • Robert Al-Chokhachy
  • Todd Koel
  • Matthew A. Kulp
  • Nathaniel Hitt
Chapter

Abstract

Effects of climate change over the next century will have important consequences for freshwater fish distributions and abundance. A fish’s body temperature closely mirrors that of its environment. Consequently, the physiology, ontogeny, and life histories of freshwater fishes are regulated by the timing and magnitude of streamflow and temperature regimes, which are directly influenced by climatic conditions.

Keywords

Brook Trout Lake Trout Native Fish Cutthroat Trout Nonnative Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Al-Chokhachy, R., J. Alder, S. Hostetler, R. Gresswell, and B. Shepard. 2013. Thermal controls of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and invasive fishes under climate change. Global Change Biology 19:3069–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aunins, A. W., J. T. Petty, T. L. King, M. Schilz, and P. M. Mazik. 2015. River mainstem thermal regimes influence population structuring within an Appalachian brook trout population. Conservation Genetics 16 (1):15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baxter, J. S., and J. D. McPhail. 1999. The influence of redd site selection, groundwater upwelling, and over-winter incubation temperature on survival of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from egg to alevin. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1233–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bear, E. A., T. E. McMahon, and A. V. Zale. 2007. Comparative thermal requirements of westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout: Implications for species interactions and development of thermal protection standards. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136 (4):1113–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Behnke, R. J. 1992. Native trout of Western North America. Bethesda, MD: American Fisheries Society.Google Scholar
  6. Boyd, J. W., C. S. Guy, T. B. Horton, and S. A. Leathe. 2010. Effects of catch-and-release angling on salmonids at elevated water temperatures. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 30:898–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buktenica, M. W., D. K. Hering, S. F. Girdner, B. D. Mahoney, and B. D. Rosenlund. 2013. Eradication of nonnative brook trout with electrofishing and Antimycin-A and the response of a remnant bull trout population. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 33:117–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bulkley, R. V., and N. Benson. 1962. Predicting Year-Class Abundance of Yellowstone Lake Cutthroat Trout. Research Report 59. US Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  9. Cooney, S. J., A. P. Covich, P. M. Lukacs, A. L. Harig, and K. D. Fausch. 2005. Modeling global warming scenarios in greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias) streams: Implications for species recovery. Western North American Naturalist 65:371–81.Google Scholar
  10. Crozier, L. G., A. P. Hendry, P. W. Lawson, T. P. Quinn, N. J. Mantua, J. Battin, R. G. Shaw, and R. B. Huey. 2008. Potential responses to climate change in organisms with complex life histories: Evolution and plasticity in Pacific salmon. Evolutionary Applications 1:252–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. DeHaan, P. W., L. T. Schwabe, and W. R. Ardren. 2010. Spatial patterns of hybridi-zation between bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, in an Oregon stream network. Conservation Genetics 11 (3):935–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Duda, J. J., J. E. Freilich, and E. G. Schreiner. 2008. Baseline studies in the Elwha River ecosystem prior to dam removal: Introduction to the special issue. Northwest Science 82 (special issue):1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dunham, J., R. Schroeter, and B. Rieman. 2003. Influence of maximum water temperature on occurrence of Lahontan cutthroat trout within streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 23:1042–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eaton, J., and R. M. Scheller. 1996. Effects of climate warming on fish thermal habitat in streams of the United States. Limnology and Oceanography 41:1109–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ellis, R. A., D. J. Jacob, M. P. Sulprizio, L. Zhang, C. D. Holmes, B. A. Schichtel, T. Blett, E. Porter, L. H. Pardo, and J. A. Lynch. 2013. Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: Critical load exceedances. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 (17):9083–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fausch, K. D., B. E. Rieman, J. B. Dunham, M. K. Young, and D. P. Peterson. 2009. Invasion versus isolation: Trade-offs in managing native salmonids with barriers to upstream movement. Conservation Biology 23:859–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flebbe, P. A., L. D. Roghair, and J. L. Bruggink. 2006. Spatial modeling to project southern Appalachian trout distribution in a warmer climate. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:1371–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frankham, R. 2010. Challenges and opportunities of genetic approaches to biological conservation. Biological Conservation 143:1919–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. George, A. L., B. R. Kuhajda, J. D. Williams, M. A. Cantrell, P. L. Rakes, and J. R. Shute. 2009. Guidelines for propagation and translocation for freshwater fish conservation. Fisheries 34:529–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gresswell, R. E. 1991. Use of antimycin for removal of brook trout from a tributary of Yellowstone Lake. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 11:83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gresswell, R. E. 2011. Biology, status, and management of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 31:782–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haddeland, I., J. Heinke, H. Biemans, S. Eisner, M. Florke, N. Hanasaki, M. Konzmann, F. Ludwig, Y. Masaki, J. Schewe, et al. 2014. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111:3251–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hakala, J. P., and K. J. Hartman. 2004. Drought effect on stream morphology and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in forested headwater streams. Hydrobiologia 515:203–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hasegawa, K., and K. Maekawa. 2006. The effects of introduced salmonids on two native stream-dwelling salmonids through interspecific competition. Journal of Fish Biology 68 (4):1123–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hitt, N. P., C. Frissell, C. C. Muhlfeld, and F. W. Allendorf. 2003. Spread of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi, and nonnative rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60:1440–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hitt, N. P., and J. H. Roberts. 2012. Hierarchical spatial structure of stream fish colonization and extinction. Oikos 121:127–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Horton, R., G. Yohe, W. Easterling, R. Kates, M. Ruth, E. Sussman, A. Whelchel, D. Wolfe, and F. Lipschultz. 2014. Northeast. Chap. 16 in Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, edited by J. M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, and G. W. Yohe. US Global Change Research Program.Google Scholar
  28. Hudy, M., B. Roper, and N. Gillespie. 2007. Large scale assessments: Lessons learned from native trout management. In Sustaining Wild Trout in a Changing World: Proceedings of Wild Trout IX Symposium, edited by R. F. Carline and C. LoSapio, 223–35. October 9–12, West Yellowstone.Google Scholar
  29. Hudy, M., T. M. Thieling, N. Gillespie, and E. P. Smith. 2008. Distribution, status, and land use characteristics of subwatersheds within the native range of brook trout in the eastern United States. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 28:1069–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Humston, R., K. Bezold, N. D. Adkins, R. J. Elsey, Huss, B. A. Meekins, P. R. Cabe, and T. L. King. 2012. Consequences of stocking headwater impoundments on native populations of brook trout in tributaries. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 32 (1):100–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hutchings, J. A. 1996. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, life histories. Ecoscience 3:25–32.Google Scholar
  32. Jastram, J. D., C. D. Snyder, N. P. Hitt, and K. C. Rice. 2013. Synthesis and Interpretation of Surface-Water Quality and Aquatic Biota Data Collected in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, 1979–2009. Scientific Investigations Report 2013–5157. Reston, VA: US Geological Survey.Google Scholar
  33. Johnson, J. R., J. Baumsteiger, J. Zydlewski, J. M. Hudson, and W. Ardren. 2010. Evidence of panmixia between sympatric life history forms of coastal cutthroat trout in two lower Columbia River tributaries. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 30:691–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Johnston, F. D., and J. R. Post. 2009. Density-dependent life-history compensation of an iteroparous salmonid. Ecological Applications 19:449–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kanno, Y., B. H. Letcher, J. A. Coombs, K. H. Nislow, and A. R. Whiteley. 2014. Linking movement and reproductive history of brook trout to assess habitat connectivity in a heterogeneous stream network. Freshwater Biology 59 (1):142–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kanno, Y., B. H. Letcher, N. P. Hitt, D. A. Boughton, J. E. B. Wofford, and E. F. Zipkin. 2015. Seasonal weather patterns drive population vital rates and persistence in a stream fish. Global Change Biology 21 (5):1856–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Keleher, C. J., and F. J. Rahel. 1996. Thermal limits to salmonid distributions in the Rocky Mountain region and potential habitat loss due to global warming: A geographic information system (GIS) approach. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kelly, G. A., J. S. Griffith, and R. D. Jones. 1980. Changes in Distribution of Trout in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 1900–1977. US Fish and Wildlife Service Technical Papers 102.Google Scholar
  39. King, W. 1937. Notes on the distribution of native speckled and rainbow trout in the streams at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 12 (4):351–61.Google Scholar
  40. Koel, T. M., P. E. Bigelow, P. D. Doepke, B. D. Ertel, and D. L. Mahony. 2005. Nonnative lake trout result in Yellowstone cutthroat trout decline and impacts to bears and anglers. Fisheries 30 (11):10–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Koel, T. M., D. L. Mahony, K. L. Kinnan, C. Rasmussen, C. J. Hudson, S. Murcia, and B. L. Kerans. 2006. Myxobolus cerebralis in native cutthroat trout of the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 18 (3):157–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kondolf, G. M., G. F. Cada, M. J. Sale, and T. Felando. 1991. Distribution and stability of potential salmonid spawning gravels in steep boulder-bed streams of the eastern Sierra Nevada. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 120:177–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Krueger, C. C., and B. May. 1991. Ecological and genetic effects of salmonid introductions in North America. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48:66–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kulp, M. A., and S. E. Moore. 2000. Multiple electrofishing removals for eliminating rainbow trout in a small southern Appalachian stream. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 20 (1):259–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kurylyk, B. L., K. T. B. MacQuarrie, T. Linnansaari, R. A. Cunjack, and R. A. Curry. 2015. Preserving, augmenting, and creating cold-water thermal refugia in rivers: Concepts derived from research on the Miramichi River, New Brunswick (Canada). Ecohydrology 8 (6):1095–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kurylyk, B. L., K. T. B. MacQuarrie, and C. I. Voss. 2014. Climate change impacts on the temperature and magnitude of groundwater discharge from shallow, unconfined aquifers. Water Resources Research 50:3253–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Larson, G. L., and S. E. Moore. 1985. Encroachment of exotic rainbow trout into stream populations of native brook trout in the southern Appalachian mountains. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114:195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Latterell, J. J., K. D. Fausch, C. Gowan, and S. C. Riley. 1998. Relationship of trout recruitment to snowmelt runoff flows and adult trout abundance in six Colorado mountain streams. Rivers 6:240–50.Google Scholar
  49. Lawrence, D. J., B. Stewart-Koster, J. D. Olden, A. S. Ruesch, C. E. Torgersen, J. J. Lawler, D. P. Butcher, and J. K. Crown. 2014. The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a nonnative predator on stream-rearing salmon. Ecological Applications 24 (4):895–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Leppi, J. C., T. H. DeLuca, S. W. Harrar, and S. W. Running. 2012. Impacts of climate change on August stream discharge in the Central-Rocky Mountains. Climatic Change 112 (3–4):997–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marcogliese, D. J. 2001. Implications of climate change for parasitism of animals in the aquatic environment. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79 (8):1331–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Martinez, P. J., P. E. Bigelow, M. A. Deleray, W. A. Fredenberg, B. S. Hansen, N. J. Horner, S. K. Lehr, R. W. Schneidervin, S. A. Tolentino, and A. E. Viola. 2009. Western lake trout woes. Fisheries 34 (9):424–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McMahon, T. E., A. V. Zale, F. T. Barrows, J. H. Selong, and R. J. Danehy. 2007. Temperature and competition between bull trout and brook trout: A test of the elevation refuge hypothesis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136 (5):1313–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Miller, G. 2010. In central California, coho salmon are on the brink. Science 327:512–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Minckley, W. L. 1995. Translocation as a tool for conserving imperiled fishes: Experiences in Western United States. Biological Conservation 72:297–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moore, S. E., M. A. Kulp, J. Hammonds, and B. Rosenlund. 2005. Restoration of Sams Creek and an Assessment of Brook Trout Restoration Methods: Great Smoky Mountains National Park. National Park Service Technical Report/NPS/NRWRD/NRTR-2005/342.Google Scholar
  57. Moore, S. E., G. L. Larson, and R. Bromfield. 1986. Population control of exotic rainbow trout in streams of a natural area park. Environmental Management 10:215–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mosheni, O., H. G. Stephan, and J. Eaton. 2003. Global warming and potential changes in fish habitat in U.S. streams. Climatic Change 59:389–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Muhlfeld, C. C., R. P. Kovach, L. A. Jones, R. Al-Chokhachy, M. C. Boyer, R. F. Leary, W. H. Lowe, G. Luikart, and F. W. Allendorf. 2014. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change. Nature Climate Change 4:620–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. National Park Service. 2010. National Park Service Climate Change Response Strategy. Fort Collins, CO: National Park Service Climate Change Response Program.Google Scholar
  61. Neff, K. J., J. S. Schwartz, T. B. Henry, R. B. Robinson, S. E. Moore, and M. A. Kulp. 2009. Physiological stress in native brook trout during episodic stream acidification in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 57:366–76. doi: 10.1007/s00244-008-9269-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Neff, K. J., J. S. Schwartz, S. E. Moore, and M. A. Kulp. 2013. Influence of basin characteristics on baseflow and stormflow chemistry in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Hydrological Processes 27 (14):2061–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Peterson, D. P., B. E. Rieman, D. L. Horan, and M. K. Young. 2014. Patch size but not short-term isolation influences occurrence of westslope cutthroat trout above human-made barriers. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 23:556–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Petty, J. T., P. J. Lamothe, and P. M. Mazik. 2005. Spatial and seasonal dynamics of brook trout populations inhabiting a central Appalachian watershed. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:572–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Quist, M. C., and W. A. Hubert. 2004. Bioinvasive species and the preservation of cutthroat trout in the western United States: Ecological, social, and economic issues. Environmental Science and Policy 7:303–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Quist, M. C., and W. A. Hubert. 2005. Relative effects of biotic and abiotic processes: A test of the biotic-abiotic constraining hypothesis as applied to cutthroat trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:676–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rahel, F. J., and J. D. Olden. 2008. Assessing the effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species. Conservation Biology 22 (3):521–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rash, J. M., B. A. Lubinski, and T. L. King. 2014. Genetic analysis of North Carolina’s brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis with emphasis on previously uncharacterized collections. In Proceedings of the Wild Trout XI Symposium, 180–89. September. http://www.wildtroutsymposium.com/proceedings-11.pdf.Google Scholar
  69. Rhymer, J. M., and D. Simberloff. 1996. Extinction by hybridization and introgression. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27:83–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rice, K. C., and J. D. Jastram. 2015. Rising air and stream-water temperatures in Chesapeake Bay region, USA. Climatic Change 128:127–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ruesch, A. S., C. E. Torgersen, J. J. Lawler, J. D. Olden, E. E. Peterson, C. J. Volk, and D. J. Lawrence. 2012. Projected climate-induced habitat loss for salmonids in the John Day River network, Oregon, USA. Conservation Biology 26:873–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sanderson, B. L., K. A. Barnas, and A. M. W. Rub. 2009. Nonindigenous species of the Pacific Northwest: An overlooked risk to endangered salmon? BioScience 59 (3):245–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shepard, B. B. 2010. Evidence of niche similarity between cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis): Implications for displacement of native cutthroat trout by nonnative brook trout. PhD dissertation. Montana State University, Bozeman.Google Scholar
  74. Shepard, B. B., B. E. May, and W. Urie. 2005. Status and conservation of westslope cutthroat trout within the western United States. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 25:1426–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shepard, B. B., L. M. Nelson, M. L. Taper, and A. V. Zale. 2014. Factors influencing successful eradication of nonnative brook trout from four small Rocky Mountain streams using electrofishing. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 34:988–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shepard, B. B., B. Sanborn, L. Ulmer, and D. C. Lee. 1997. Status and risk of extinction for westslope cutthroat trout in the upper Missouri River Basin, Montana. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 17:1158–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Simmons, R. E., P. Lavretsky, and B. May. 2010. Introgressive hybridization of redband trout in the Upper McCloud River watershed. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 139:201–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sinokrot, B. A., H. G. Stefan, J. H. McCormick, and J. G. Eaton. 1995. Modeling of climate change effects on stream temperatures and fish habitats below dams and near groundwater inputs. Climatic Change 30:181–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Strange, R. J., and J. W. Habera. 1998. No net loss of brook trout distribution in areas of sympatry with rainbow trout in Tennessee streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:434–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Torterotot, J. B., C. Perrier, N. E. Bergeron, and L. Bernatchez. 2014. Influence of forest road culverts and waterfalls on the fine-scale distribution of brook trout genetic diversity in a boreal watershed. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143 (6):1577–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Trumbo, B. A., K. H. Nislow, J. Stallings, M. Hudy, E. P. Smith, D. Kim, B. Wiggins, and C. A. Dolloff. 2014. Ranking site vulnerability to increasing temperatures in southern Appalachian brook trout streams in Virginia: An exposure-sensitivity approach. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143:173–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2008. Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Portland, OR: USFWS.Google Scholar
  83. Van Kirk, R. W., and L. Benjamin. 2001. Status and conservation of salmonids in relation to hydrologic integrity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Western North American Naturalist 61:359–74.Google Scholar
  84. Varley, J. D. 1981. A History of Fish Stocking Activities in Yellowstone National Park between 1881 and 1980. Mammoth, WY: US Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park.Google Scholar
  85. Walters, A. W., K. K. Bartz, and M. M. McClure. 2013. Interactive effects of water diversion and climate change for juvenile Chinook salmon in the Lemhi river basin (USA). Conservation Biology 27 (6):1179–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Webb, B. W., and F. Nobilis. 2007. Long-term changes in river temperature and the influence of climatic and hydrological factors. Hydrological Sciences Journal 52:74–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wenger, S. J., D. J. Isaak, C. H. Luce, H. M. Neville, K. D. Fausch, J. B. Dunham, D. C. Dauwalter, M. K. Young, M. M. Elsner, B. E. Rieman, et al. 2011. Flow regime, temperature, and biotic interactions drive differential declines of trout species under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (34):14175–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Whiteley, A. R., J. A. Coombs, M. Hudy, Z. Robinson, A. R. Colton, K. H. Nislow, and B. H. Letcher. 2013. Fragmentation and patch size shape genetic structure of brook trout populations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 70 (5):678–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Xu, C., B. H. Letcher, and K. H. Nislow. 2010. Context-specific influence of water temperature on brook trout growth rates in the field. Freshwater Biology 55 (11):2253–64.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Island Press 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley B. Shepard
  • Robert Al-Chokhachy
  • Todd Koel
  • Matthew A. Kulp
  • Nathaniel Hitt

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations