Human Impact on Protected Areas of the Peruvian Amazon
SIXTEEN PERCENT OF THE AMAZON BIOME is part of Peru, nearly a quarter of which Peru has designated as protected areas under several categories. The oldest protected area in the Peruvian portion of the Amazon biome is the small Cutervo National Park, established in 1961, located in the north of Peru. Some of the most important protected areas of the Peruvian Amazon (including Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve and the Manu National Park) were created in the 1970s. Today there are 11 national parks and a total of 45 protected areas, both national and regional. Peru protects more than 18.1 million hectares, approximately 23.4 percent of its Amazon biome, which would seem quite a considerable area under protection, but a large portion of this area remains only partially protected, with about 55.3 percent of it allowing human presence and restricted economic uses (“direct-use”), including such categories as: national reserves, communal reserves, reserved zones, protection forests, and regional conservation areas. The fully protected areas (“indirect-use”) are national parks, national sanctuaries, and historical sanctuaries, and these areas stretch across 44.7 percent of the protected land.