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Uncovering the Ocean’s Past

  • Heike K. Lotze
  • Jon M. Erlandson
  • Marah J. Hardt
  • Richard D. Norris
  • Kaustuv Roy
  • Tim D. Smith
  • Christine R. Whitcraft
Chapter

Abstract

The ocean has a history. Over the past hundreds, thousands, and millions of years the ocean and life within it have evolved and changed. This history determines the ocean’s present state and shapes its path into the future. We cannot understand how the ocean functions today without knowing its ecological history. Likewise, we cannot predict future changes without knowing the origin, cause, and trajectory of change in the past. Finally, we cannot effectively restore degraded marine populations, communities, or ecosystems without historical baselines to use as reference points.

Keywords

Fossil Record Sedimentary Record Sperm Whale Minke Whale Humpback Whale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the late Ransom A. Myers and to Boris Worm for helpful discussions and comments. Financial support was provided by the Census of Marine Life’s History (HMAP) and Future (FMAP) of Marine Animal Populations programs funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

Copyright information

© Island Press 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heike K. Lotze
    • 1
  • Jon M. Erlandson
    • 2
  • Marah J. Hardt
    • 3
  • Richard D. Norris
    • 4
  • Kaustuv Roy
    • 5
  • Tim D. Smith
    • 6
  • Christine R. Whitcraft
    • 7
  1. 1.marine biologyDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.Arts and SciencesUniversity of Oregon (UO)EugeneUSA
  3. 3.OceanInkKailua KonaUSA
  4. 4.UC San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  5. 5.University of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  6. 6.NOAABaltimoreUSA
  7. 7.Biological Sciences DepartmentCalifornia State University, Long Beach (CSULB)Long BeachUSA

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