Advertisement

Unifying Framework for Understanding Impacts of Human Developments on Wildlife

  • Chris J. Johnson
  • Martin-Hugues St-Laurent
Chapter

Abstract

Natural resource professionals recognize the negative impacts of human developments on the distribution, abundance, and, in some cases, persistence of wildlife populations or species. Indeed, human activity in all its forms (Kerr and Currie 1995) is a primary cause of the global decline in biodiversity in general (Brooks et al.2002; Dudgeon et al. 2006; White and Kerr 2006) and wildlife in particular (Ceballos and Ehrlich 2002; Laliberte and Ripple 2004; Davies et al.2006). This recognition has led to a rapid increase in the number of studies designed to elucidate and document wildlife–human interactions (fig. 3.1).

Keywords

Wind Farm Vital Rate Seismic Line Wildlife Population Spatiotemporal Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aastrup, P. 2000. Responses of West Greenland caribou to the approach of humans on foot. Polar Research 19:83–90.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, L. G., F. J. Singer, and B. W. Dale. 1995. Caribou calf mortality in Denali National Park, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 59:584–94.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, T. F. H., and T. B. Starr, eds. 1982. Hierarchy: Perspectives for ecological complexity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  4. Amo, L., P. Lopez, and J. Martin. 2006. Nature-based tourism as a form of preda-tion risk affects body condition and health state of Podarcis muralis lizards. Biological Conservation 131:402–9.Google Scholar
  5. Andrews, A. 1990. Fragmentation of habitat by roads and utility corridors: A review. Australian Zoologist 26:130–41.Google Scholar
  6. Anthony, R. G., J. A. Estes, M. A. Ricca, A. K. Miles, and E. D. Forsman. 2008. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian archipelago: Indirect effects of trophic cascades. Ecology 89:2725–35.Google Scholar
  7. Arnett, E. B., W. K. Brown, W. P. Erickson, J. K. Fiedler, B. L. Hamilton, T. H. Henry, A. Jain, et al. 2008. Patterns of bat fatalities at wind energy facilities in North America. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:61–78.Google Scholar
  8. Barten, N. L., R. T. Bowyer, and K. J. Jenkins. 2001. Habitat use by female caribou: Tradeoffs associated with parturition. Journal of Wildlife Management 65:77– 92.Google Scholar
  9. Battin, J. 2004. When good animals love bad habitats: Ecological traps and the conservation of animal populations. Conservation Biology 18:1482–91.Google Scholar
  10. Baxter, W., W. A. Ross, and H. Spaling. 2001. Improving the practice of cumulative effects assessment in Canada. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 19.Google Scholar
  11. Beckers, J., Y. Alila, and A. Mtiraoui. 2002. On the validity of the British Columbia Forest Practices Code guidelines for stream culvert discharge design. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research 32:648–92.Google Scholar
  12. Bennett, V. J., M. Beard, P. A. Zollner, E. Fernandez-Juricic, L. Westphal, and C. L. LeBlanc. 2009. Understanding wildlife responses to human disturbance through simulation modelling: A management tool. Ecological Complexity 6:113–34.Google Scholar
  13. Berger, J. 2004. The last mile: How to sustain long-distance migration in mammals. Conservation Biology 18:320–31.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 2007. Fear, human shields and the redistribution of prey and predators in protected areas. Biology Letters 3:620–3.Google Scholar
  15. Berger, K. M., E. M. Gese, and J. Berger. 2008. Indirect effects and traditional trophic cascades: A test involving wolves, coyotes, and pronghorn. Ecology 89:818–28.Google Scholar
  16. Bergerud, A. T., and J. P. Elliot. 1986. Dynamics of caribou and wolves in northern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:1515–29.Google Scholar
  17. Bergerud, A. T., and S. N. Luttich. 2003. Predation risk and optimal foraging tradeoff in the demography and spacing of the George River Herd, 1958 to 1993. Rangifer 14:169–91.Google Scholar
  18. Bergman, E. J., R. A. Garrott, S. Creel, J. J. Borkowski, R. Jaffe, and E. G. R. Watson. 2006. Assessment of prey vulnerability through analysis of wolf movements and kill sites. Ecological Applications 16:273–84.Google Scholar
  19. Best, L. B. 1986. Conservation tillage: Ecological traps for nesting birds? Wildlife Society Bulletin 14:308–17.Google Scholar
  20. Bisson, I. A., L. K. Butler, T. J. Hayden, L. M. Romero, and M. C. Wikelski. 2009. No energetic cost of anthropogenic disturbance in a songbird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276:961–9.Google Scholar
  21. Blondel, J. 2008. On humans and wildlife in Mediterranean islands. Journal of Bio-geography 35:509–18.Google Scholar
  22. Boal, C. W., and R. W. Mannan. 1999. Comparative breeding ecology of Cooper’s hawks in urban and exurban areas of southeastern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:77–84.Google Scholar
  23. Borrvall, C., and B. Ebenman. 2006. Early onset of secondary extinctions in ecological communities following the loss of top predators. Ecology Letters 9:435–42.Google Scholar
  24. Boyce, M. S. 1992. Population viability analysis. Annual Review of Ecology and Sys-tematics 23:481–506.Google Scholar
  25. Bradshaw, C. J. A., S. Boutin, and D. M. Hebert. 1997. Effects of petroleum exploration on woodland caribou in northeastern Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management 61:1127–33.Google Scholar
  26. British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission. 2004. Geophysical guidelines for the Muskwa-Kechika Management Area. Fort St. John, BC, Canada.Google Scholar
  27. Brodeur, V., J. P. Ouellet, R. Courtois, and D. Fortin. 2008. Habitat selection by black bears in an intensively logged boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86:1307–16.Google Scholar
  28. Brooks, T. M., R. A. Mittermeier, C. G. Mittermeier, G. A. B. da Fonseca, A. B. Rylands, W. R. Konstant, P. Flick, et al. 2002. Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology 16:909–23.Google Scholar
  29. Brown, C. D., and C. Boutin. 2009. Linking past land use, recent disturbance, and dispersal mechanism to forest composition. Biological Conservation 142:1647– 56.Google Scholar
  30. Burris, R. K., and L. W. Canter. 1997. Cumulative impacts are not properly addressed in environmental assessments. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 17:5–18.Google Scholar
  31. Cameron, R. D., D. J. Reed, J. R. Dau, and W. T. Smith. 1992. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil-field development on the Arctic slope of Alaska. Arctic 45:338–42.Google Scholar
  32. Cameron, R. D., W. T. Smith, R. G. White, and B. Griffith. 2005. Central Arctic caribou and petroleum development: Distributional, nutritional, and reproductive implications. Arctic 58:1–9.Google Scholar
  33. Caughley, G., ed. 1977. Analysis of vertebrate populations. New York: Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  34. Ceballos, G., and P. R. Ehrlich. 2002. Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Science 296:904–7.Google Scholar
  35. Cerutti, P. O., R. Nasi, and L. Tacconi. 2008. Sustainable forest management in Cameroon needs more than approved forest management plans. Ecology and Society 13:36.Google Scholar
  36. Chan-McLeod, A. C. A., R. G. White, and D. F. Holleman. 1994. Effects of protein and energy intake, body condition, and season on nutrient partitioning and milk production in caribou and reindeer. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:938– 47.Google Scholar
  37. Chasko, G. G., and J. E. Gates. 1982. Avian habitat suitability along a transmission line corridor in an oak-hickory forest region. Wildlife Monographs 82.Google Scholar
  38. Clemmons, J. R., and R. Buchholz, eds. 1997. Linking conservation and behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Cohen, J. 1994. The earth is round (P <.05). American Psychologist 49:997–1003.Google Scholar
  40. Conacher, A. J. 1994. The integration of land-use planning and management with environmental impact assessment: Some Australian and Canadian perspectives. Impact Assessment 4:347–73.Google Scholar
  41. Courtois, R., and J. P. Ouellet. 2007. Modeling the impact of moose and wolf management on persistence of woodland caribou. Alces 43:13–27.Google Scholar
  42. Courtois, R., J. P. Ouellet, A. Gingras, C. Dussault, L. Breton, and J. Maltais. 2003. Historical changes and current distribution of caribou, Rangifer tarandus, in Quebec. Canadian Field-Naturalist 117:399–414.Google Scholar
  43. Cronin, M. A., W. B. Ballard, J. D. Bryan, B. J. Pierson, and J. D. McKendrick. 1998. Northern Alaska oil fields and caribou: A commentary. Biological Conservation 83:195–208.Google Scholar
  44. Cronin, M. A., H. A. Whitlaw, and W. B. Ballard. 2000. Northern Alaska oil fields and caribou. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28:919–22.Google Scholar
  45. Cubbage, F. W., and D. H. Newman. 2006. Forest policy reformed: A United States perspective. Forest Policy and Economics 9:261–73.Google Scholar
  46. Dahle, B., E. Reimers, and J. E. Coleman. 2008. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) avoidance of a highway as revealed by lichen measurements. European Journal of Wildlife Research 54:27–35.Google Scholar
  47. Davey, L. H., J. L. Barnes, C. L. Horvath, and A. Griffiths. 2001. Addressing cumulative environmental effects: Sectoral and regional environmental assessment. Proceedings of Cumulative Environmental Effects Management, Tools and Approaches. Alberta Society of Professional Biologists.Google Scholar
  48. Davies, R. G., C. D. L. Orme, V. Olson, G. H. Thomas, S. G. Ross, T. S. Ding, P. C. Rasmussen, et al. 2006. Human impacts and the global distribution of extinction risk. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273:2127–33.Google Scholar
  49. de Lucas, M., G. F. E. Janss, and M. Ferrer. 2005. A bird and small mammal BACI and IG design studies in a wind farm in Malpica (Spain). Biodiversity and Conservation 14:3289–303.Google Scholar
  50. Devereux, C. L., M. J. H. Denny, and M. J. Whittingham. 2008. Minimal effects of wind turbines on the distribution of wintering farmland birds. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:1689–94.Google Scholar
  51. Diavik Diamond Mines Incorporated. 2008. 2007 wildlife monitoring program. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada: Diavik Diamond Mines, Inc.Google Scholar
  52. Diaz, M., J. C. Illera, and D. Hedo. 2001. Strategic environmental assessment of plans and programs: A methodology for estimating effects on biodiversity. Environmental Management 28:267–79.Google Scholar
  53. Dixon, J., and B. E. Montz. 1995. From concept to practice: Implementing cumulative impact assessment in New Zealand. Environmental Management 19:445–56.Google Scholar
  54. Dubé, M. 2003. Cumulative effect assessment in Canada: A regional framework for aquatic ecosystems. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 23:723–45.Google Scholar
  55. Dubé, M., and K. Munkittrick. 2001. Integration of effects-based and stressor-based approaches into a holistic framework for cumulative effects assessment in aquatic ecosystems. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 7:247–58.Google Scholar
  56. Duchesne, M., S. D. Cote, and C. Barrette. 2000. Responses of woodland caribou to winter ecotourism in the Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve, Canada. Biological Conservation 96:311–7.Google Scholar
  57. Dudgeon, D., A. H. Arthington, M. O. Gessner, Z. I. Kawabata, D. J. Knowler, C. Leveque, R. J. Naiman, et al. 2006. Freshwater biodiversity: Importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews 81:163–82.Google Scholar
  58. Duinker, P. N., and L. A. Greig. 2006. The importance of cumulative effects assessment in Canada: Ailments and ideas for redeployment. Environmental Management 37:153–61.Google Scholar
  59. Duinker, P. N., and L. A. Greig. 2007. Scenario analysis in environmental impact assessment: Improving explorations of the future. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 27:206–19.Google Scholar
  60. Dungan, J. L., J. N. Perry, M. R. T. Dale, P. Legendre, S. Citron-Pousty, M. J. Fortin, A. Jakomulska, M. Miriti, and M. S. Rosenberg. 2002. A balanced view of scale in spatial statistical analysis. Ecography 25:626–40.Google Scholar
  61. Dussault, C., J. P. Ouellet, R. Courtois, J. Huot, L. Breton, and H. Jolicoeur. 2005. Linking moose habitat selection to limiting factors. Ecography 28:619–28.Google Scholar
  62. Dyer, S. J., J. P. O’Neill, S. M. Wasel, and S. Boutin. 2001. Avoidance of industrial development by woodland caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management 65:531– 42.Google Scholar
  63. Ebeling, J., and M. Yasue. 2009. The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: Forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia. Journal of Environmental Management 90:1145–53.Google Scholar
  64. Erickson, W. P., G. D. Johnson, M. D. Strickland, D. P. Young, K. J. Sernka, and R. E. Good. 2001. Avian collisions with wind turbines: A summary of existing studies and comparisons to other sources of avian collision mortality in the United States. Cheyenne, WY: Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc.Google Scholar
  65. Fahrig, L., and T. Rytwinski. 2009. Effects of roads on animal abundance: An empirical review and synthesis. Ecology and Society 14:21.Google Scholar
  66. Findlay, C. S., S. Elgie, B. Giles, and L. Burr. 2009. Species listing under Canada’s Species at Risk Act. Conservation Biology 23:1609–17.Google Scholar
  67. Flaspohler, D. J., S. A. Temple, and R. N. Rosenfield. 2001. Species-specific edge effects on nest success and breeding bird density in a forested landscape. Ecological Applications 11:32–46.Google Scholar
  68. Folke, C., S. Carpenter, B. Walker, M. Scheffer, T. Elmqvist, L. Gunderson, and C. S. Holling. 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35:557–81.Google Scholar
  69. Fortin, D., H. L. Beyer, M. S. Boyce, D. W. Smith, T. Duchesne, and J. S. Mao. 2005. Wolves influence elk movements: Behavior shapes a trophic cascade in Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 86:1320–30.Google Scholar
  70. Fortin, D., R. Courtois, P. Etcheverry, C. Dussault, and A. Gingras. 2008. Winter selection of landscapes by woodland caribou: Behavioural response to geographical gradients in habitat attributes. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:1392– 400.Google Scholar
  71. Fowler, G. S. 1999. Behavioral and hormonal responses of magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) to tourism and nest site visitation. Biological Conservation 90:143–9.Google Scholar
  72. Frair, J. L., E. H. Merrill, H. L. Beyer, and J. M. Morales. 2008. Thresholds in landscape connectivity and mortality risks in response to growing road networks. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:1504–13.Google Scholar
  73. Frame, P. F., H. D. Cluff, and D. S. Hik. 2007. Response of wolves to experimental disturbance at homesites. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:316–20.Google Scholar
  74. Frame, P. F., H. D. Cluff, and D. S. Hik. 2008. Wolf reproduction in response to caribou migration and industrial development on the central barrens of mainland Canada. Arctic 61:134–42.Google Scholar
  75. Fraser, S. J. 2007. Filling a public policy gap in Canada: Forest certification. Forestry Chronicle 83:666–71.Google Scholar
  76. Frid, A., and L. M. Dill. 2002. Human-caused disturbance stimuli as a form of pre-dation risk. Conservation Ecology 6:11.Google Scholar
  77. Gabrielsen, G. W., and E. N. Smith, eds. 1995. Physiological responses of wildlife to disturbance. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  78. Galanti, V., D. Preatoni, A. Martinoti, L. A. Wauters, and G. Tosi. 2006. Space and habitat use of the African elephant in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem, Tanzania: Implications for conservation. Mammalian Biology 71:99–114.Google Scholar
  79. Gaveau, D. L. A., M. Linkie, Suyadi, P. Levang, and N. Leader-Williams. 2009. Three decades of deforestation in southwest Sumatra: Effects of coffee prices, law enforcement and rural poverty. Biological Conservation 142:597–605.Google Scholar
  80. Gerhart, K. L., D. E. Russell, D. VanDewetering, R. G. White, and R. D. Cameron. 1997. Pregnancy of adult caribou (Rangifer tarandus): Evidence for lactational infertility. Journal of Zoology 242:17–30.Google Scholar
  81. Gibbs, J. P., ed. 2000. Monitoring populations. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Gibbs, J. P., S. Droege, and P. Eagle. 1998. Monitoring populations of plants and animals. BioScience 48:935–40.Google Scholar
  83. Gill, A. B. 2005. Offshore renewable energy: Ecological implications of generating electricity in the coastal zone. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:605–15.Google Scholar
  84. Gillin, C. M., and L. Irwin. 1985. Response of elk to seismograph exploration in the Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming. Laramie: University of Wyoming.Google Scholar
  85. Gucinski, H., M. J. Furniss, R. R. Ziemer, and M. H. Brookes, eds. 2001. Forest roads: A synthesis of scientific information. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-509. Portland, OR: Pacific Northwest Research Station, U.S. Forest Service.Google Scholar
  86. Gunderson, L., and C. Holling. 2002. Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  87. Gustafson, E. J., D. E. Lytle, R. Swaty, and C. Loehle. 2007. Simulating the cumulative effects of multiple forest management strategies on landscape measures of forest sustainability. Landscape Ecology 22:141–56.Google Scholar
  88. Hansson, L. 1979. Field signs as indicators of vole abundance. Journal of Applied Ecology 16:339–47.Google Scholar
  89. Hanusch, M., and J. Glasson. 2008. Much ado about SEA/SA monitoring: The performance of English Regional Spatial Strategies, and some German comparisons. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 28:601–17.Google Scholar
  90. Harriman, J. A., and B. F. Noble. 2008. Characterizing project and strategic approaches to regional cumulative effects assessment in Canada. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management 10:25–50.Google Scholar
  91. Harvey, B. C., and S. F. Railsback. 2007. Estimating multi-factor cumulative watershed effects on fish populations with an individual-based model. Fisheries 32:292–98.Google Scholar
  92. Haskell, S. P., and W. B. Ballard. 2008. Annual re-habituation of calving caribou to oilfields in northern Alaska: Implications for expanding development. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86:627–37.Google Scholar
  93. Haskell, S. P., R. M. Nielson, W. B. Ballard, M. A. Cronin, and T. L. McDonald. 2006. Dynamic responses of calving caribou to oilfields in northern Alaska. Arctic 59:179–90.Google Scholar
  94. Hins, C., J. P. Ouellet, C. Dussault, and M. H. St-Laurent. 2009. Habitat selection by forest-dwelling caribou in managed boreal forest of eastern Canada: Evidence of a landscape configuration effect. Forest Ecology and Management 257:636–43.Google Scholar
  95. Hinz, H., V. Prieto, and M. J. Kaiser. 2009. Trawl disturbance on benthic communities: Chronic effects and experimental predictions. Ecological Applications 19:761–773.Google Scholar
  96. Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4:1–23.Google Scholar
  97. Hood, G. A., and K. L. Parker. 2001. Impact of human activities on grizzly bear habitat in Jasper National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:624–38.Google Scholar
  98. Jackson, T., and J. Curry. 2002. Regional development and land use planning in rural British Columbia: Peace in the woods? Regional Studies 36:439–43.Google Scholar
  99. James, A. R. C., and A. K. Stuart-Smith. 2000. Distribution of caribou and wolves in relation to linear corridors. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:154–9.Google Scholar
  100. Johnson, C. J. 2011. Regulating and planning for cumulative effects: The Canadian experience. Cumulative effects in wildlife management: Impact mitigation. New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  101. Johnson, C. J., and M. S. Boyce. 2004. A quantitative approach for regional environmental assessment: Application of a habitat-based population viability analysis to wildlife of the Canadian central Arctic. Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency Research and Development Monograph Series.Google Scholar
  102. Johnson, C. J., M. S. Boyce, R. L. Case, H. D. Cluff, R. J. Gau, A. Gunn, and R. Mulders. 2005. Cumulative effects of human developments on arctic wildlife. Wildlife Monographs 160.Google Scholar
  103. Johnson, C. J., and M. P. Gillingham. 2004. Mapping uncertainty: Sensitivity of wildlife habitat ratings to expert opinion. Journal of Applied Ecology 41:1032– 41.Google Scholar
  104. Johnson, C. J., K. L. Parker, D. C. Heard, and M. P. Gillingham. 2002. Movement parameters of ungulates and scale-specific responses to the environment. Journal of Animal Ecology 71:225–35.Google Scholar
  105. Johnson, E. A., and K. Miyanishi. 2008. Creating new landscapes and ecosystems: The Alberta oil sands. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1134:120–45.Google Scholar
  106. Joly, K., C. Nellemann, and I. Vistnes. 2006. A reevaluation of caribou distribution near an oilfield road on Alaska’s North Slope. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:866–9.Google Scholar
  107. Jones, J. P. G., M. M. Andriamarovololona, and N. Hockley. 2008. The importance of taboos and social norms to conservation in Madagascar. Conservation Biology 22:976–86.Google Scholar
  108. Keane, A., J. P. G. Jones, G. Edwards-Jones, and E. J. Milner-Gulland. 2008. The sleeping policeman: Understanding issues of enforcement and compliance in conservation. Animal Conservation 11:75–82.Google Scholar
  109. Kennett, S. A. 1999. Towards a new paradigm for cumulative effects management. Canadian Institute of Resources Law CIRL Occasional Paper #8. University of Calgary, Edmonton, Alberta.Google Scholar
  110. Kerbiriou, C., I. Le Viol, A. Robert, E. Porcher, F. Gourmelon, and R. Julliard. 2009. Tourism in protected areas can threaten wild populations: From individual response to population viability of the chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:657–65.Google Scholar
  111. Kerr, J. T., and D. J. Currie. 1995. Effects of human activity on global extinction risk. Conservation Biology 9:1528–38.Google Scholar
  112. Kimerling, J. 2001. Corporate ethics in the era of globalization: The promise and peril of international environmental standards. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14:425–55.Google Scholar
  113. Kirk, R. E. 1996. Practical significance: A concept whose time has come. Educational and Psychological Measurement 56:746–59.Google Scholar
  114. Kofinas, G., P. Lyver, D. Russell, R. White, A. Nelson, and N. Flanders. 2003. Towards a protocol for community monitoring of caribou body condition. Rangifer 14:43–52.Google Scholar
  115. Köller, J., J. Köppel, and W. Peters, eds. 2006. Offshore wind energy: Research on environmental impacts. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  116. Kotliar, N. B., and J. A. Wiens. 1990. Multiple scales of patchiness and patch structure: A hierarchical framework for the study of heterogeneity. Oikos 59:253– 60.Google Scholar
  117. Krausman, P. R., L. K. Harris, C. L. Blasch, K. K. G. Koenen, and J. Francine. 2004. Effects of military operations on behavior and hearing of endangered Sonoran pronghorn. Wildlife Monographs 157.Google Scholar
  118. ———. 1999. Ecological methodology, 2nd ed. Don Mills, Ontario: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers.Google Scholar
  119. Krebs, J. R., and N. B. Davies. 1993. An introduction to behavioural ecology, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science.Google Scholar
  120. Kuck, L., G. L. Hompland, and E. H. Merrill. 1985. Elk calf response to simulated mine disturbance in southeast Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:751–7.Google Scholar
  121. Kunkel, K. E., and D. H. Pletscher. 2000. Habitat factors affecting vulnerability of moose to predation by wolves in southeastern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:150–7.Google Scholar
  122. Kuvlesky, W. P., L. A. Brennan, M. L. Morrison, K. K. Boydston, B. M. Ballard, and F. C. Bryant. 2007. Wind energy development and wildlife conservation: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:2487–98.Google Scholar
  123. Laliberte, A. S., and W. J. Ripple. 2003. Wildlife encounters by Lewis and Clark: A spatial analysis of interactions between native Americans and wildlife. Bio-Science 53:994–1003.Google Scholar
  124. Laliberte, A. S., and W. J. Ripple. 2004. Range contractions of North American carnivores and ungulates. BioScience 54:123–38.Google Scholar
  125. Lancaster, P. A., J. Bowman, and B. A. Pond. 2008. Fishers, farms, and forests in eastern North America. Environmental Management 42:93–101.Google Scholar
  126. Lancia, R. A., J. D. Nichols, and K. H. Pollock, eds. 1994. Estimating the number of animals in wildlife populations, 5th ed. Bethesda, MD: The Wildlife Society.Google Scholar
  127. Laurian, C., C. Dussault, J. P. Ouellet, R. Courtois, M. Poulin, and L. Breton. 2008. Behavior of moose relative to a road network. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1550–7.Google Scholar
  128. Lawton, J. H., D. E. Bignell, B. Bolton, G. F. Bloemers, P. Eggleton, P. M. Hammond, M. Hodda, et al. 1998. Biodiversity inventories, indicator taxa and effects of habitat modification in tropical forest. Nature 391:72–6.Google Scholar
  129. Lee, P., and S. Boutin. 2006. Persistence and developmental transition of wide seismic lines in the western Boreal Plains of Canada. Journal of Environmental Management 78:240–50.Google Scholar
  130. Levin, S. A. 1992. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73:1943– 67.Google Scholar
  131. Linnell, J. D. C., R. Aanes, and R. Andersen. 1995. Who killed Bambi? The role of predation in the neonatal mortality of temperature ungulates. Wildlife Biology 1:209–23.Google Scholar
  132. Ludwig, D., M. Mangel, and B. Haddad. 2001. Ecology, conservation, and public policy. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32:481–517.Google Scholar
  133. MacArthur, R. A., R. H. Johnston, and V. Geist. 1979. Factors influencing heart rate in free-ranging bighorn sheep: A physiological approach to the study of wildlife harassment. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57:2010–21.Google Scholar
  134. Madsen, J. 1994. Impacts of disturbance on migratory waterfowl. Ibis 137:67– 74.Google Scholar
  135. Madsen, P. T., M. Wahlberg, J. Tougaard, K. Lucke, and P. Tyack. 2006. Wind turbine underwater noise and marine mammals: Implications of current knowledge and data needs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 309:279–95.Google Scholar
  136. Martin, P. S., and C. R. Szuter. 1999. War zones and game sinks in Lewis and Clark’s West. Conservation Biology 13:36–45.Google Scholar
  137. Mattson, D. J., and T. Merrill. 2002. Extirpations of grizzly bears in the contiguous United States, 1850–2000. Conservation Biology 16:1123–36.Google Scholar
  138. McCutchen, N. A. 2007. Factors affecting caribou survival in northern Alberta: The role of wolves, moose, and linear features. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton.Google Scholar
  139. McLoughlin, P. D., J. S. Dunford, and S. Boutin. 2005. Relating predation mortality to broad-scale habitat selection. Journal of Animal Ecology 74:701–7.Google Scholar
  140. Meffe, G. K., and S. Viederman. 1995. Combining science and policy in conservation biology. Wildlife Society Bulletin 23:327–32.Google Scholar
  141. Melo, C. J., and S. A. Wolf. 2005. Empirical assessment of eco-certification: The case of Ecuadorian bananas. Organization Environment 18:287–317.Google Scholar
  142. Merrill, E. H., T. P. Hemker, K. P. Woodruff, and L. Kuck. 1994. Impacts of mining facilities on fall migration of mule deer. Wildlife Society Bulletin 22:68–73.Google Scholar
  143. Mills, L. S., D. F. Doak, and M. J. Wisdom. 1999. Reliability of conservation actions based on elasticity analysis of matrix models. Conservation Biology 13:815–29.Google Scholar
  144. Mills, T. J., and R. N. Clark. 2001. Roles of research scientists in natural resource decision-making. Forest Ecology and Management 153:189–98.Google Scholar
  145. Millspaugh, J. J., G. C. Brundige, R. A. Gitzen, and K. J. Raedeke. 2000. Elk and hunter space-use sharing in South Dakota. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:994–1003.Google Scholar
  146. Mooers, A. O., L. R. Prugh, M. Festa-Bianchet, and J. A. Hutchings. 2007. Biases in legal listing under Canadian endangered species legislation. Conservation Biology 21:572–5.Google Scholar
  147. Morgantini, L. E. 1985. Ungulate encounters with construction materials during the building of an underground gas pipeline in western Alberta. Alces 21:215– 30.Google Scholar
  148. Mortberg, U. M., B. Balfors, and W. C. Knol. 2007. Landscape ecological assessment: A tool for integrating biodiversity issues in strategic environmental assessment and planning. Journal of Environmental Management 82:457–70.Google Scholar
  149. Nams, V. O., and M. Bourgeois. 2004. Fractal analysis measures habitat use at different spatial scales: An example with American marten. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1738–47.Google Scholar
  150. Naugle, D. E., K. E. Doherty, B. L. Walker, M. J. Holloran, and H. E. Copeland. 2011. Energy development and sage-grouse. Number 21 in S. T. Knick and J. W. Connelly, eds. Greater sage-grouse: Ecology and conservation of a landscape species and its habitats. Studies in Avian Biology. sagemap.wr.usgs.gov/monograph.aspx. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
  151. Naylor, L. M., M. J. Wisdom, and R. G. Anthony. 2009. Behavioral responses of North American elk to recreational activity. Journal of Wildlife Management 73:328–38.Google Scholar
  152. Nellemann, C., and R. D. Cameron. 1996. Effects of petroleum development on terrain preferences of calving caribou. Arctic 49:23–8.Google Scholar
  153. Nellemann, C., I. Vistnes, P. Jordhoy, and O. Strand. 2001. Winter distribution of wild reindeer in relation to power lines, roads and resorts. Biological Conservation 101:351–60.Google Scholar
  154. Nellemann, C., I. Vistnes, P. Jordhoy, O. Strand, and A. Newton. 2003. Progressive impact of piecemeal infrastructure development on wild reindeer. Biological Conservation 113:307–17.Google Scholar
  155. Newsom, D., V. Bahm, and B. Cashore. 2006. Does forest certification matter? An analysis of operation-level changes required during the SmartWood certification process in the United States. Forest Policy and Economics 9:197– 208.Google Scholar
  156. Nielsen, S. E., S. Herrero, M. S. Boyce, R. D. Mace, B. Benn, M. L. Gibeau, and S. Jevons. 2004. Modelling the spatial distribution of human-caused grizzly bear mortalities in the Central Rockies ecosystem of Canada. Biological Conservation 120:101–13.Google Scholar
  157. Nielsen, S. E., G. B. Stenhouse, H. L. Beyer, F. Huettmann, and M. S. Boyce. 2008. Can natural disturbance-based forestry rescue a declining population of grizzly bears? Biological Conservation 141:2193–207.Google Scholar
  158. Nielsen, S. E., G. B. Stenhouse, and M. S. Boyce. 2006. A habitat-based framework for grizzly bear conservation in Alberta. Biological Conservation 130:217– 29.Google Scholar
  159. Nitschke, C. R. 2008. The cumulative effects of resource development on biodiversity and ecological integrity in the Peace-Moberly region of Northeast British Columbia, Canada. Biodiversity and Conservation 17:1715–40.Google Scholar
  160. Noble, B. F. 2002. The Canadian experience with SEA and sustainability. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 22:3–16.Google Scholar
  161. Noel, L. E., K. R. Parker, and M. A. Cronin. 2004. Caribou distribution near an oilfield road on Alaska’s North Slope, 1978–2001. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:757–71.Google Scholar
  162. Osko, T. J., M. N. Hiltz, R. J. Hudson, and S. M. Wasel. 2004. Moose habitat preferences in response to changing availability. Journal of Wildlife Management 68:576–84.Google Scholar
  163. Parker, K. L. 2003. Advances in the nutritional ecology of cervids at different scales. Ecoscience 10:395–411.Google Scholar
  164. Parker, K. L., P. S. Barboza, and M. P. Gillingham. 2009. Nutrition integrates environmental responses of ungulates. Functional Ecology 23:57–69.Google Scholar
  165. Pease, C. M., and D. J. Mattson. 1999. Demography of the Yellowstone grizzly bears. Ecology 80:957–75.Google Scholar
  166. Peterson, G. D., G. S. Cumming, and S. R. Carpenter. 2003. Scenario planning: A tool for conservation in an uncertain world. Conservation Biology 17:358–66.Google Scholar
  167. Phillips, G. E., and A. W. Alldredge. 2000. Reproductive success of elk following disturbance by humans during calving season. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:521–30.Google Scholar
  168. Pigliucci, M. 2002. Are ecology and evolutionary biology “soft” sciences? Annales Zoologici Fennici 39:87–98.Google Scholar
  169. Preisler, H. K., A. A. Ager, and M. J. Wisdom. 2006. Statistical methods for analysing responses of wildlife to human disturbance. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:164–72.Google Scholar
  170. Purcell, K. L., and J. Verner. 1998. Density and reproductive success of California towhees. Conservation Biology 12:442–50.Google Scholar
  171. Pyare, S., S. Cain, D. Moody, C. Schwartz, and J. Berger. 2004. Carnivore re-colonisation: Reality, possibility and a non-equilibrium century for grizzly bears in the southern Yellowstone ecosystem. Animal Conservation 7:71–7.Google Scholar
  172. Quinonez-Pinon, R., A. Mendoza-Duran, and C. Valeo. 2007. Design of an environmental monitoring program using NDVI and cumulative effects assessment. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28:1643–64.Google Scholar
  173. Rabin, L. A., R. G. Coss, and D. H. Owings. 2006. The effects of wind turbines on antipredator behavior in California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi). Biological Conservation 131:410–20.Google Scholar
  174. Ratti, J. T., and K. P. Reese. 1988. Preliminary test of the ecological trap hypothesis. Journal of Wildlife Management 52:484–91.Google Scholar
  175. Reid, W. V., and K. R. Miller. 1989. Keeping options alive: The scientific basis for conservation biodiversity. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  176. Reimers, E., S. Eftestol, and J. E. Colman. 2003. Behavior responses of wild reindeer to direct provocation by a snowmobile or skier. Journal of Wildlife Management 67:747–54.Google Scholar
  177. Remes, V. 2000. How can maladaptive habitat choice generate source-sink population dynamics? Oikos 91:579–82.Google Scholar
  178. Retief, F., C. Jones, and S. Jay. 2008. The emperor’s new clothes: Reflections on strategic environmental assessment (SEA) practice in South Africa. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 28:504–14.Google Scholar
  179. Roedenbeck, I. A., L. Fahrig, C. S. Findlay, J. E. Houlahan, J. A. G. Jaeger, N. Klar, S. Kramer-Schadt, and E. A. van der Grift. 2007. The Rauischholzhausen agenda for road ecology. Ecology and Society 12:11.Google Scholar
  180. Romero, L. M. 2004. Physiological stress in ecology: Lessons from biomedical research. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:249–55.Google Scholar
  181. Ross, W. A. 1998. Cumulative effects assessment: Learning from Canadian case studies. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 16:267–76.Google Scholar
  182. Rowcliffe, J. M., E. de Merode, and G. Cowlishaw. 2004. Do wildlife laws work? Species protection and the application of a prey choice model to poaching decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 271:2631–6.Google Scholar
  183. Russell, D. E., R. G. White, and C. J. Daniel. 2005. Energetics of the porcupine caribou herd: A computer simulation model. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  184. Saab, V. 1999. Importance of spatial scale to habitat use by breeding birds in riparian forests: A hierarchical analysis. Ecological Applications 9:135–51.Google Scholar
  185. Sallabanks, R., E. B. Arnett, and J. M. Marzluff. 2000. An evaluation of research on the effects of timber harvest on bird populations. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28:1144–55.Google Scholar
  186. Samarakoon, M., and J. S. Rowan. 2008. A critical review of environmental impact statements in Sri Lanka with particular reference to ecological impact assessment. Environmental Management 41:441–60.Google Scholar
  187. Sawyer, H., R. M. Nielson, F. Lindzey, and L. L. McDonald. 2006. Winter habitat selection of mule deer before and during development of a natural gas field. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:396–403.Google Scholar
  188. Schaefer, J. A. 2003. Long-term range recession and the persistence of caribou in the taiga. Conservation Biology 17:1435–9.Google Scholar
  189. Schaefer, J. A., and F. Messier. 1995. Habitat selection as a hierarchy: The spatial scales of winter foraging by muskoxen. Ecography 18:333–44.Google Scholar
  190. Schlaepfer, M. A., M. C. Runge, and P. W. Sherman. 2002. Ecological and evolutionary traps. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:474–80.Google Scholar
  191. Schneider, D. C. 2001. The rise of the concept of scale in ecology. BioScience 51:545–53.Google Scholar
  192. Schneider, R. R., J. B. Stelfox, S. Boutin, and S. Wasel. 2003. Managing the cumulative impacts of land uses in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin: A modeling approach. Conservation Ecology 7:8.Google Scholar
  193. Schwartz, C. C., and A. W. Franzmann. 1989. Bears, wolves, moose, and forest succession, and some management considerations on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Alces 25:1–11.Google Scholar
  194. Schwartz, C. C., M. A. Haroldson, G. C. White, R. B. Harris, S. Cherry, K. A. Keating, D. Moody, and C. Servheen. 2006. Temporal, spatial, and environmental influences on the demographics of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Wildlife Monographs 161.Google Scholar
  195. Seip, D. R. 1992. Factors limiting woodland caribou populations and their interrelationships with wolves and moose in southeastern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:1494–1503.Google Scholar
  196. Seip, D. R., C. J. Johnson, and G. S. Watts. 2007. Displacement of mountain caribou from winter habitat by snowmobiles. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1539–44.Google Scholar
  197. Senft, R. L., M. B. Coughenour, D. W. Bailey, L. R. Rittenhouse, O. E. Sala, and D. M. Swift. 1987. Large herbivore foraging and ecological hierarchies. Bio-Science 37:789–99.Google Scholar
  198. Sherry, E., and H. Myers. 2002. Traditional environmental knowledge in practice. Society and Natural Resources 15:345–58.Google Scholar
  199. Shifley, S. R., F. R. Thompson, W. D. Dijak, and Z. F. Fan. 2008. Forecasting landscape-scale, cumulative effects of forest management on vegetation and wildlife habitat: A case study of issues, limitations, and opportunities. Forest Ecology and Management 254:474–83.Google Scholar
  200. Sinclair, I. C. 2000. Better laws equal better environment: The role of the environmental lawyer in the reconstruction and modernisation of the water sector in private sector participation. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 123:353–60.Google Scholar
  201. Slade, N. A., and S. M. Blair. 2000. An empirical test of using counts of individuals captured as indices of population size. Journal of Mammalogy 81:1035–45.Google Scholar
  202. Soderman,T. A. 2006. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 26:319–38.Google Scholar
  203. Sorensen, T., P. D. McLoughlin, D. Hervieux, E. Dzus, J. Nolan, B. Wynes, and S. Boutin. 2008. Determining sustainable levels of cumulative effects for boreal caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:900–5.Google Scholar
  204. Sovacool, B. K. 2009. Contextualizing avian mortality: A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity. Energy Policy 37:2241–8.Google Scholar
  205. Spies, T. A., K. N. Johnson, K. M. Burnett, J. L. Ohmann, B. C. McComb, G. H. Reeves, P. Bettinger, J. D. Kline, and B. Garber-Yonts. 2007. Cumulative ecological and socioeconomic effects of forest policies in coastal Oregon. Ecological Applications 17:5–17.Google Scholar
  206. Starfield, A. M. 1997. A pragmatic approach to modeling for wildlife management. Journal of Wildlife Management 61:261–70.Google Scholar
  207. St-Laurent, M. H., J. Ferron, C. Hins, and R. Gagnon. 2007. Effects of stand structure and landscape characteristics on habitat use by birds and small mammals in managed boreal forest off eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37:1298–309.Google Scholar
  208. Swenson, D. P., and R. F. Ambrose. 2007. A spatial analysis of cumulative habitat loss in Southern California under the Clean Water Act Section 404 program. Landscape and Urban Planning 82:41–55.Google Scholar
  209. Taylor, A. R., and R. L. Knight. 2003. Wildlife responses to recreation and associated visitor perceptions. Ecological Applications 13:951–63.Google Scholar
  210. Thiel, D., S. Jenni-Eiermann, V. Braunisch, R. Palme, and L. Jenni. 2008. Ski tourism affects habitat use and evokes a physiological stress response in capercaillie Tetrao urogallus: A new methodological approach. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:845–53.Google Scholar
  211. Timoney, K., and P. Lee. 2001. Environmental management in resource-rich Alberta, Canada: First world jurisdiction, third world analogue? Journal of Environmental Management 63:387–405.Google Scholar
  212. Trombulak, S. C., and C. A. Frissell. 2000. Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conservation Biology 14:18–30.Google Scholar
  213. Turner, M. G., V. H. Dale, and R. H. Gardner. 1989. Predicting across scales: Theory development and testing. Landscape Ecology 3:245–52.Google Scholar
  214. Tyler, N. J. C. 1991. Short-term behavioural responses of Svalbard reindeer Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus to direct provocation by a snowmobile. Biological Conservation 56:179–94.Google Scholar
  215. Vistnes, I., and C. Nellemann. 2001. Avoidance of cabins, roads, and power lines by reindeer during calving. Journal of Wildlife Management 65:915–25.Google Scholar
  216. Vistnes, I., C. Nellemann, P. Jordhoy, and O. Strand. 2001. Wild reindeer: Impacts of progressive infrastructure development on distribution and range use. Polar Biology 24:531–7.Google Scholar
  217. Vors, L. S., J. A. Schaefer, B. A. Pond, A. R. Rodgers, and B. R. Patterson. 2007. Woodland caribou extirpation and anthropogenic landscape disturbance in Ontario. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1249–56.Google Scholar
  218. Walker, B. G., P. D. Boersma, and J. C. Wingfield. 2005. Physiological and behavioral differences in magellanic penguin chicks in undisturbed and tourist-visited locations of a colony. Conservation Biology 19:1571–7.Google Scholar
  219. Wallace, L. L., M. G. Turner, W. H. Romme, R. V. Oneill, and Y. G. Wu. 1995. Scale of heterogeneity of forage production and winter foraging by elk and bison. Landscape Ecology 10:75–83.Google Scholar
  220. Wallgren, M., C. Skarpe, R. Bergstrom, K. Danell, L. Granlund, and A. Bergstrom. 2009. Mammal community structure in relation to disturbance and resource gradients in southern Africa. African Journal of Ecology 47:20–31.Google Scholar
  221. Wärnbäck, A., and T. Hilding-Rydevik. 2009. Cumulative effects in Swedish EIA practice: Difficulties and obstacles. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 29:107–15.Google Scholar
  222. Wasser, S. K., K. Bevis, G. King, and E. Hanson. 1997. Noninvasive physiological measures of disturbance in the northern spotted owl. Conservation Biology 11:1019–22.Google Scholar
  223. Weclaw, P., and R. J. Hudson. 2004. Simulation of conservation and management of woodland caribou. Ecological Modelling 177:75–94.Google Scholar
  224. Weisenberger, M. E., P. R. Krausman, M. C. Wallace, D. W. DeYoung, and O. E. Maughan. 1996. Effects of simulated jet aircraft noise on heart rate and behavior of desert ungulates. Journal of Wildlife Management 60:52–61.Google Scholar
  225. West, D. W., N. Ling, B. J. Hicks, L. A. Tremblay, N. D. Kim, and M. R. v. d. Heuvel. 2006. Cumulative impacts assessment along a large river, using brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) populations. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25:1868–80.Google Scholar
  226. Wheatley, M., and C. Johnson. 2009. Factors limiting our understanding of ecological scale. Ecological Complexity 6:150–9.Google Scholar
  227. White, P., and J. T. Kerr. 2006. Contrasting spatial and temporal global change impacts on butterfly species richness during the 20th century. Ecography 29:908– 18.Google Scholar
  228. Wiens, J. A. 1989. Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology 3:385–97.Google Scholar
  229. With, K. A., A. W. King, and W. E. Jensen. 2008. Remaining large grasslands may not be sufficient to prevent grassland bird declines. Biological Conservation 141:3152–67.Google Scholar
  230. Wittmer, H. U., A. R. E. Sinclair, and B. N. McLellan. 2005. The role of predation in the decline and extirpation of woodland caribou. Oecologia 144:257–67.Google Scholar
  231. Yoccoz, N. G. 1991. Use, overuse, and misuse of significance tests in evolutionary biology and ecology. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 72:106–11.Google Scholar
  232. You, M. Q. 2008. Moratorium on EIA approvals: China’s new environmental law enforcement tool. Natural Resources Journal 48:163–87.Google Scholar
  233. Zalatan, R., A. Gunn, and G. H. R. Henry. 2006. Long-term abundance patterns of barren-ground caribou using trampling scars on roots of Picea mariana in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research 38:624–30.Google Scholar
  234. Zellmer, S. B. 2000. The virtues of “command and control” regulation: Barring exotic species from aquatic ecosystems. University of Illinois Law Review 2000:1233–86.Google Scholar
  235. Zhu, D., and J. Ru. 2008. Strategic environmental assessment in China: Motivations, politics, and effectiveness. Journal of Environmental Management 88:615–26.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Island Press 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris J. Johnson
    • 1
  • Martin-Hugues St-Laurent
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Northern British ColumbiaPrince GeorgeCanada
  2. 2.Université du Québec àRimouskiCanada

Personalised recommendations