Advertisement

Physiological Mechanisms Underlying the Seasonality of Leaf Senescence and Renewal in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest Trees

Chapter

Abstract

Seasonality in the presence and production of leaves is the defining characteristic of seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) ecosystems and has important implications for their functioning. Temporal patterns of shoot activity influence photosynthetic carbon gain and thus affect competition between tree phenological types (Givnish 2002), the seasonal rhythms of tree-herbivore interactions (Leigh 1999; Dirzo and Boege 2009), and the annual ecosystem carbon uptake and energy fluxes (Kucharik et al. 2006). The impact of leaf phenology on tree carbon return is associated with its effect on the length of leaf exposure to herbivore and pathogen damage, the timing of leaf loss for water balance, and the energy investment in leaf construction (Franco et al. 2005). The timing and the length of leaf presence in tropical forests has also been suggested to play a key role in maintaining tree diversity by regulating the abundance of pest pressures (Leigh et al. 2004).

Keywords

Hydraulic Conductance Leaf Senescence Deciduous Species Hydraulic Lift Leaf Abscission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Boonman, A., E. Prinsen, F. Gilmer, U. Schurr, A.J.M. Peeters, L. Voesenek, and T.L. Pons. 2007. Cytokinin import rate as a signal for photosynthetic acclimation to canopy light gradients. Plant Physiology 143: 1841–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borchert, R., and G. Rivera. 2001. Photoperiodic control of seasonal development and dormancy in tropical stem-succulent trees. Tree Physiology 21: 213–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borchert, R., G. Rivera, and W. Hagnauer. 2002. Modifcation of vegetative phenology in a tropical semi-deciduous forest by abnormal drought and rain. Biotropica 34: 27–39.Google Scholar
  4. Brodribb, T.J., and N.M. Holbrook. 2003. Changes in leaf hydraulic conductance during leaf shedding in seasonally dry tropical forest. New Phytologist 158: 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ———. 2005. Leaf physiology does not predict leaf habit: Examples from tropical dry forest. Trees—Structure and Function 19: 290–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brodribb, T.J., N.M. Holbrook, E.J. Edwards, and M.V. Gutiérrez. 2003. Relations between stomatal closure, leaf turgor and xylem vulnerability in eight tropical dry forest trees. Plant Cell and Environment 26: 443–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brodribb, T.J., N.M. Holbrook, and M.V. Gutiérrez. 2002. Hydraulic and photosyn-thetic co-ordination in seasonally dry tropical forest trees. Plant, Cell and Environment 25: 1435–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bucci, S.J., F.G. Scholz, G. Goldstein, F.C. Meinzer, and L.D.L. Sternberg. 2003. Dynamic changes in hydraulic conductivity in petioles of two savanna tree species: Factors and mechanisms contributing to the reflling of embolized vessels. Plant, Cell and Environment 26: 1633–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buchanan-Wollaston, V., S. Earl, E. Harrison, E. Mathas, S. Navabpour, T. Page, and D. Pink. 2003. The molecular analysis of leaf senescence: A genomics approach. Plant Biotechnology Journal 1: 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caldwell, M.M., T.E. Dawson, and J.H. Richards. 1998. Hydraulic lift: Consequences of water efflux from the roots of plants. Oecologia 113: 151–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chapotin, S.M., J.H. Razanameharizaka, and N.M. Holbrook. 2006. Baobab trees (Adansonia) in Madagascar use stored water to flush new leaves but not to support stomatal opening before the rainy season. New Phytologist 169: 549–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choat, B., M.C. Ball, J.G. Luly, and J.A.M. Holtum. 2005. Hydraulic architecture of deciduous and evergreen dry rainforest tree species from north-eastern Australia. Trees—Structure and Function 19: 305–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cleland, E.E., I. Chuine, A. Menzel, H.A. Mooney, and M.D. Schwartz. 2007. Shifting plant phenology in response to global change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22: 357–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cox, P.M., R.A. Betts, C.D. Jones, S.A. Spall, and I.J. Totterdell. 2000. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature 408: 184–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dirzo, R., and K. Boege. 2009. Patterns of herbivory and defense in tropical dry and rain forests. In Tropical Forest Community Ecology, ed. W. Carson and S. Schnitzer, 63–78. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  16. Domec, J.C., A. Noormets, J.S. King, G. Sun, S.G. McNulty, M.J. Gavazzi, J.L. Boggs, and E.A. Treasure. 2009. Decoupling the infuence of leaf and root hydraulic conductances on stomatal conductance and its sensitivity to vapour pressure defcit as soil dries in a drained loblolly pine plantation. Plant Cell and Environment doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2009.01981.x.Google Scholar
  17. Domec, J.C., F.G. Scholz, S.J. Bucci, F.C. Meinzer, G. Goldstein, and R. Villalobos-Vega. 2006. Diurnal and seasonal variation in root xylem embolism in Neotropical savanna woody species: Impact on stomatal control of plant water status. Plant Cell and Environment 29: 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fisher, J.B., G. Angeles, F.W. Ewers, and J. López Portillo. 1997. Survey of root pressure in tropical vines and woody species. International Journal of Plant Sciences 158: 44–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Franco, A.C., M. Bustamante, L.S. Caldas, G. Goldstein, F.C. Meinzer, A.R. Kozovits, P. Rundel, and V.T.R. Coradin. 2005. Leaf functional traits of Neotropical savanna trees in relation to seasonal water defcit. Trees—Structure and Function 19: 326–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frankie, G.W., H.G. Baker, and P.A. Opler. 1974. Comparative phenological studies of trees in tropical wet and dry forests in lowlands of Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 62: 881–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gan, S.S., and R.M. Amasino. 1995. Inhibition of leaf senescence by autoregulated production of cytokinin. Science 270: 1986–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Givnish, T.J. 2002. Adaptive signifcance of evergreen vs. deciduous leaves: Solving the triple paradox. Silva Fennica 36: 703–43.Google Scholar
  23. Goulden, M.L., J.W. Munger, S.M. Fan, B.C. Daube, and S.C. Wofsy. 1996. Exchange of carbon dioxide by a deciduous forest: Response to interannual climate variability. Science 271: 1576–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Guo, Y.F., and S.S. Gan. 2005. Leaf senescence: Signals, execution, and regulation. Current Topics in Developmental Biology 71: 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hensel, L.L., V. Grbic, D.A. Baumgarten, and A.B. Bleecker. 1993. Developmental and age‐related processes that infuence the longevity and senescence of photosynthetic tissues in arabidoposis. Plant Cell 5: 553–64.Google Scholar
  26. Holbrook, N.M., J.L. Whitbeck, and H.A. Mooney. 1995. Drought responses of Neotropical dry forest trees. In Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests, ed. S.H. Bullock, H.A. Mooney, and E. Medina, 243–76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Horvath, D.P., J.V. Anderson, W.S. Chao, and M.E. Foley. 2003. Knowing when to grow: Signals regulating bud dormancy. Trends in Plant Science 8: 534–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jackson, P.C., F.C. Meinzer, M. Bustamante, G. Goldstein, A. Francom, P.W. Rundel, L.Caldasm, E. Igler, and F. Causin. 1999. Partitioning of soil water among tree species in a Brazilian cerrado ecosystem. Tree Physiology 19: 717–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kramer, P.J., and J.S. Boyer. 1995. Water relations of plants and soils. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  30. Kucharik, C.J., C.C. Barford, M. El Maayar, S.C. Wofsy, R.K. Monson, and D.D. Bal-docchi. 2006. A multiyear evaluation of a dynamic global vegetation model at three AmeriFlux forest sites: Vegetation structure, phenology, soil temperature, and CO2 and H2O vapor exchange. Ecological Modelling 196: 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leigh, E. 1999. The seasonal rhythms of fruiting and leaf flush and the regulation of animal populations. In Tropical Forest Ecology, ed. E. Leigh, 149–178. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Leigh, E., P. Davidar, C.W. Dick, J.P. Puyravaud, J. Terborgh, H. ter Steege, and S.J. Wright. 2004. Why do some tropical forests have so many species of trees? Biotro-pica 36: 447–73.Google Scholar
  33. Lim, P.O., H.J. Kim, and H.G. Nam. 2007. Leaf senescence. Annual Review of Plant Biology 58: 115–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Medina, E., and E. Cuevas. 1990. Propiedades fotosintéticas y efciencia de uso de agua de plantas leñosas del bosque deciduo de Guánica: Consideraciones generales y resultados preliminares. Acta Cientifca (Puerto Rico) 4: 25–36.Google Scholar
  35. Miles, L., A.C. Newton, R.S. DeFries, C. Ravilious, I. May, S. Blyth, V. Kapos, and J.E. Gordon. 2006. A global overview of the conservation status of tropical dry forests. Journal of Biogeography 33: 491–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miller, A., C. Schlagnhaufer, M. Spalding, and S. Rodermel. 2000. Carbohydrate regulation of leaf development: Prolongation of leaf senescence in Rubisco antisense mutants of tobacco. Photosynthesis Research 63: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moreira, M.Z., F.G. Scholz, S.J. Bucci, L.S. Sternberg, G. Goldstein, F.C. Meinzer, and A.C. Franco. 2003. Hydraulic lift in a Neotropical savanna. Functional Ecology 17: 573–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nilsen, E.T., M.R. Sharif, P. W. Rundel, I.N. Forseth, and J.R. Ehleringer. 1990. Water relations of stem succulent trees in north‐central Baja California. Oecologia 82: 299–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Noodén, L.D., and A.C. Leopold. 1988. Senescence and Aging in Plants. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. Olivares, E., and E. Medina. 1992. Water and nutrient relations of woody perennials from tropical dry forests. Journal of Vegetation Science 3: 383–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ono, K., Y. Nishi, A. Watanabe, and I. Terashima. 2001. Possible mechanisms of adaptive leaf senescence. Plant Biology 3: 234–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ono, K., and A. Watanabe. 1997. Levels of endogenous sugars, transcripts of rbcS and rbcL, and of RuBisCo protein in senescing sunflower leaves. Plant and Cell Physiology 38: 1032–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pourtau, N., M. Mares, S. Purdy, N. Quentin, A. Ruel, and A. Wingler. 2004. Interactions of abscisic acid and sugar signalling in the regulation of leaf senescence. Planta 219: 765–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Quirino, B.F., Y.S. Noh, E. Himelblau, and R.M. Amasino. 2000. Molecular aspects of leaf senescence. Trends in Plant Science 5: 278–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reich, P.B., and R. Borchert. 1982. Phenology and ecophysiology of the tropical tree, Tabebuia neochrysantha (Bignoniaceae). Ecology 63: 294–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Richer, R.A. 2008. Leaf phenology and carbon dynamics in six leguminous trees. African Journal of Ecology 46: 88–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rivera, G., S. Elliott, L.S. Caldas, G. Nicolossi, V.T.R. Coradin, and R. Borchert. 2002. Increasing day-length induces spring flushing of tropical dry forest trees in the absence of rain. Trees—Structure and Function 16: 445–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rojas-Jiménez, K., N.M. Holbrook, and M.V. Gutiérrez-Soto. 2007. Dry-season leaf flushing of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (ear-pod tree): Above- and belowground phenology and water relations. Tree Physiology 27: 1561–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rolland, F., E. Baena-Gonzalez, and J. Sheen. 2006. Sugar sensing and signaling in plants: Conserved and novel mechanisms. Annual Review of Plant Biology 57: 675–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rose, T.J., Z. Rengel, Q. Ma, and J.W. Bowden. 2008. Hydraulic lift by canola plants aids P and K uptake from dry topsoil. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 59: 38–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sack, L., and N.M. Holbrook. 2006. Leaf hydraulics. Annual Review of Plant Biology 57: 361–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Scholz, F.G., S.J. Bucci, G. Goldstein, F.C. Meinzer, and A.C. Franco. 2002. Hydraulic redistribution of soil water by Neotropical savanna trees. Tree Physiology 22: 603–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sobrado, M.A. 1993. Trade-off between water transport effciency and leaf life-span in a tropical dry forest. Oecologia 96: 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Srivastava, L.M. 2002. Plant Growth and Development: Hormones and Environment. Amsterdam: Academic Press/Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  55. Whigham, D.F., P. Zugasty Towle, E.F. Cabrera, J. O'Neill, and E. Ley. 1990. The effect of variation in precipitation on basal area growth and litter production in a tropical dry forest in Mexico. Tropical Ecology 31: 23–34.Google Scholar
  56. Williams, M., Y. Malhi, A.D. Nobre, E.B. Rastetter, J. Grace, and M.G.P. Pereira. 1998. Seasonal variation in net carbon exchange and evapotranspiration in a Brazilian rain forest: A modelling analysis. Plant Cell and Environment 21: 953–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Williams, R.J., B.A. Myers, W.J. Muller, G.A. Duff, and D. Eamus. 1997. Leaf phenology of woody species in a north Australian tropical savanna. Ecology 78: 2542–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wingler, A., M. Mares, and N. Pourtau. 2004. Spatial patterns and metabolic regulation of photosynthetic parameters during leaf senescence. New Phytologist 161: 781–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Woo, H.R., and C.H. Goh, J.H. Park, B.T. de la Serve, J.H. Kim, Y.I. Park, and H.G. Nam. 2002. Extended leaf longevity in the ore4-1 mutant of Arabidopsis with a reduced expression of a plastid ribosomal protein gene. Plant Journal 31: 331–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wright, S.J., and F.H. Cornejo. 1990. Seasonal drought and leaf fall in a tropical forest. Ecology 71: 1165–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Island Press 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Organismic and Evolutionary BiologyHarvard UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations