Part of the EAAP – European Federation of Animal Science book series (EAAP, volume 30)


Feed is one of the major expenses in modern cattle production. In addition to feed prices, its overall costs are affected by the efficiency of feed utilization and the output of animal products to be marketed. Hence, there is a clear need to evaluate feed quality in order to maximise profitability. This requires information on both animal requirements and nutrient supply, since formulation of an appropriate ration involves balancing available feeds in proportions that match the amounts of nutrients supplied to the animals’ nutrient requirements as closely as possible. There are two principal methods used to describe animal nutrition: those based on mechanistic approaches, which describe responses to nutrients from chemical and physiological processes in the gastrointestinal tract and intermediary, and empirical approaches describing simple relationships between nutrient intakes and production responses. The challenge in the development of new feed evaluation systems is to accurately predict responses to nutrients so that any difference in product income and feed costs can be maximized, while improving overall feed efficiency. Feed efficiency is also of great importance due to its impact on enteric methane emission to the atmosphere and nitrogen and phosphorus passing into the environment.


Feed Efficiency Production Response Feed Utilization Feed Cost Protein Evaluation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Wageningen Academic Publishers 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TINE and the Norwegian University of Life SciencesAkershusNorway

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