Introduction: The World of Touch

  • Tony J. Prescott
  • Volker Dürr
Part of the Scholarpedia book series (SCHP)


Despite its behavioural significance and omnipresence throughout the animal kingdom, the sense of touch is still one of the least studied and understood modalities. There are multiple forms of touch, and the mechanosensory basis underlying touch perception must be divided into several distinct sub-modalities (such as vibration or pressure), as will be made clear by the contributions elsewhere in this encyclopaedia. The commonality of all touch sensing systems is that touch experience is mediated by specialised receptors embedded in the integument—the outer protective layers of the animal such as the mammalian skin or the arthropod cuticle. Comparative research on touch, and its neuroethology, is only just beginning to provide a larger picture of the different forms of touch sensing within the animal kingdom. We begin our volume by reviewing works on several different invertebrate and vertebrate species, focusing on mechanosensation, each one with a specific requirement for tactile information. The aim of this introductory overview is to give selected examples of research on important model organisms from various classes of the animal kingdom, ranging from the skin of worms to the feelers of insects, and from the whiskers of a rat to the human hand. We conclude by discussing forms of human touch and the possibility of its future extension via synthetic systems.


Glabrous Skin Lateral Line System Aquatic Mammal Insect Antenna Important Model Organism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Internal References

  1. Ahissar, E; Shinde, N and Haidarliu, S (2015). Systems neuroscience of touch. Scholarpedia 10: 32785. (see also pages 401–405 of this book).
  2. Barth, F G (2015). A spider’s tactile hairs. Scholarpedia 10(3): 7267. (see also pages 65–81 of this book).
  3. Bensmaia, S (2009). Texture from touch. Scholarpedia 4(8): 7956. (see also pages 207–215 of this book).
  4. Brembs, B (2014). Aplysia operant conditioning. Scholarpedia 9(1): 4097.
  5. Cheok, A and Pradana, G A (2015). Virtual touch. Scholarpedia 10: 32679. (see also pages 837–849 of this book).
  6. Crish, C M; Crish, S D and Comer, C M (2015). Tactile sensing in the naked mole rat. Scholarpedia 10(3): 7164. (see also pages 95–101 of this book).
  7. Derbyshire, S (2014). Painful touch. Scholarpedia 9(3): 7962. (see also pages 249–255 of this book).
  8. Dürr, V (2014). Stick insect antennae. Scholarpedia 9(2): 6829. (see also pages 45–63 of this book).
  9. Grasso, F and Wells, M (2013). Tactile sensing in the octopus. Scholarpedia 8(6): 7165. (see also pages 83–94 of this book).
  10. Haidarliu, S (2015). Whisking musculature. Scholarpedia 10(4): 32331. (see also pages 627–639 of this book).
  11. Hanke, W and Dehnhardt, G (2015). Vibrissal touch in pinnipeds. Scholarpedia 10(3): 6828. (see also pages 125–139 of this book).
  12. Heller, M and Ballesteros, S (2012). Visually-impaired touch. Scholarpedia 7(11): 8240. (see also pages 387–397 of this book).
  13. Kappers, A and Bergmann Tiest, W (2014). Shape from touch. Scholarpedia 9(1): 7945. (see also pages 197–206 of this book).
  14. Kim, Y and Harders, M (2015). Haptic displays. Scholarpedia 10: 32376. (see also pages 817–827 of this book).
  15. Klatzky, R and Reed, C L (2009). Haptic exploration. Scholarpedia 4(8): 7941. (see also pages 177–183 of this book).
  16. Knutsen, P (2015). Whisking kinematics. Scholarpedia 10: 7280. (see also pages 615–625 of this book).
  17. Kra, Y; Arieli, A and Ahissar, E (2015). Tactile substitution for vision. Scholarpedia 10: 32457. (see also pages 829–836 of this book).
  18. Lacey, S and Sathian, K (2015). Crossmodal and multisensory interactions between vision and touch. Scholarpedia 10(3): 7957. (see also pages 301–315 of this book).
  19. Lepora, N (2015). Active tactile perception. Scholarpedia 10: 32364. (see also pages 151–159 of this book).
  20. Martinez-Hernandez, U (2015). Tactile sensors. Scholarpedia 10: 32398. (see also pages 783–796 of this book).
  21. Moayedi, Y; Nakatani, M and Lumpkin, E (2015). Mammalian mechanoreception. Scholarpedia 10: 7265. (see also pages 423–435 of this book).
  22. Okada, J (2009). Cockroach antennae. Scholarpedia 4(10): 6842. (see also pages 31–43 of this book).
  23. Pipe, T and Pearson, M (2015). Whiskered robots. Scholarpedia 10: 6641. (see also pages 809–815 of this book).
  24. Prescott, T J; Mitchinson, B and Grant, R A (2011). Vibrissal behavior and function. Scholarpedia 6(10): 6642. (see also pages 103–116 of this book).
  25. Ramachandran, V S and Brang, D (2009). Phantom touch. Scholarpedia 4(10): 8244. (see also pages 377–386 of this book).
  26. Reep, R and Sarko, D K (2009). Tactile hair in manatees. Scholarpedia 4(4): 6831. (see also pages 141–148 of this book).
  27. Roth-Alpermann, C and Brecht, M (2009). Vibrissal touch in the Etruscan shrew. Scholarpedia 4(11): 6830. (see also pages 117–123 of this book).
  28. van Stralen, H and Dijkerman, C (2011). Central touch disorders. Scholarpedia 6(10): 8243. (see also pages 363–376 of this book).
  29. Wilson, S and Moore, C (2015). S1 somatotopic maps. Scholarpedia 10: 8574. (see also pages 565–576 of this book).

External References

  1. Ache, J M; Haupt, S S and Dürr, V (2015). A direct descending pathway informing locomotor networks about tactile sensor movement. The Journal of Neuroscience 35: 4081–4091.Google Scholar
  2. Ahissar, E and Kleinfeld, D (2003). Closed-loop neuronal computations: Focus on vibrissa somatosensation in rat. Cerebral Cortex 13(1): 53–62.Google Scholar
  3. Anjum, F; Turni, H; Mulder, P G; van der Burg, J and Brecht, M (2006). Tactile guidance of prey capture in Etruscan shrews. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(44): 16544–16549.Google Scholar
  4. Arkett, S A; Mackie, G O and Meech, R W (1988). Hair cell mechanoreception in the jellyfish Aglantha digitale. Journal of Experimental Biology 135: 329–342.Google Scholar
  5. Bach-y-Rita, P (1972). Brain Mechanisms in Sensory Substitution. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barlow, H B (2001). The exploitation of regularities in the environment by the brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24: 602–660.Google Scholar
  7. Berg, R W and Kleinfeld, D (2003). Rhythmic whisking by rat: Retraction as well as protraction of the vibrissae is under active muscular control. Journal of Neurophysiology 89(1): 104–117.Google Scholar
  8. Berta, A; Sumich, J L and Kovacs, K M (2006). Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bleckmann, H and Zelick, R (2009). Lateral line system of fish. Integrative Zoology 4(1): 13–25.Google Scholar
  10. Brecht, M; Preilowski, B and Merzenich, M M (1997). Functional architecture of the mystacial vibrissae. Behavioural Brain Research 84(1–2): 81-97.Google Scholar
  11. Bronselaer, G A et al. (2013). Male circumcision decreases penile sensitivity as measured in a large cohort. BJU International 111(5): 820–827.Google Scholar
  12. Camhi, J M and, Johnson (1999). High-frequency steering maneuvers mediated by tactile cues: Antennal wall-following in the cockroach. Journal of Experimental Biology 202: 631–643.Google Scholar
  13. Carlton, T and McVean, A (1995). The role of touch, pressure and nociceptive mechanoreceptors of the leech in unrestrained behaviour. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 177: 781–791.Google Scholar
  14. Catania, K C (1999). A nose that looks like a hand and acts like an eye: The unusual mechanosensory system of the star-nosed mole. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 185(4): 367–372.Google Scholar
  15. Catania, K C (2011). The sense of touch in the star-nosed mole: from mechanoreceptors to the brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 366(1581): 3016–3025.Google Scholar
  16. Catania, K C; Hare, J F and Campbell, K L (2008). Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(2): 571–576.Google Scholar
  17. Catania, K C and Henry, E C (2006). Touching on somatosensory specializations in mammals. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 16(4): 467–473.Google Scholar
  18. Catania, K C and Kaas, J H (1995). Organization of the somatosensory cortex of the star-nosed mole. Journal of Comparative Neurology 351(4): 549–567.Google Scholar
  19. Catania, K C and Remple, F E (2005). Asymptotic prey profitability drives star-nosed moles to the foraging speed limit. Nature 433(7025): 519–522.Google Scholar
  20. Cazala, F; Vienney, N and Stoléru, S (2015). The cortical sensory representation of genitalia in women and men: A systematic review. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology 5.  10.3402/snp.v3405.26428.
  21. Chalfie, M et al. (1985).The neural circuit for touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans. The Journal of Neuroscience 5: 956–964.Google Scholar
  22. Chen, X and Chalfie, M (2014). Modulation of C. elegans touch sensitivity is integrated at multiple levels. The Journal of Neuroscience 34: 6522–6536.Google Scholar
  23. Chuong, C M et al. (2002). What is the ‘true’ function of skin? Experimental Dermatology 11(2): 159–187.Google Scholar
  24. Clark, A (2013). Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 36(3): 181–204.Google Scholar
  25. Clement, R G E; Bugler, K E and Oliver, C W (2011). Bionic prosthetic hands: A review of present technology and future aspirations. The Surgeon 9(6): 336–340.Google Scholar
  26. Coutand, C (2010). Mechanosensing and thigmomorphogenesis, a physiological and biomechanical point of view. Plant Science 179: 168–182.Google Scholar
  27. Crusco, A H and Wetzel, C G (1984). The Midas Touch: The effects of interpersonal touch on restaurant tipping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 10(4): 512–517.Google Scholar
  28. Dehnhardt, G; Mauck, B; Hanke, W and Bleckmann, H (2001). Hydrodynamic trail-following in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). Science 293(5527): 102–104.Google Scholar
  29. Eberhardt, W C; Shakhsheer, Y A; Calhoun, B H; Paulus, J R and Appleby, M (2011). A bio-inspired artificial whisker for fluid motion sensing with increased sensitivity and reliability. In: 2011 IEEE Sensors.Google Scholar
  30. Erber, J; Kierzek, S; Sander, E and Grandy, K (1998). Tactile learning in the honeybee. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 183: 737–744.Google Scholar
  31. Erber, J; Pribbenow, B; Grandy, K and Kierzek, S (1997). Tactile motor learning in the antennal system of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.).Journal of Comparative Physiology A 181: 355–365.Google Scholar
  32. Erber, J; Pribbenow, B; Kisch, J and Faensen, D (2000). Operant conditioning of antennal muscle activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). Journal of Comparative Physiology A 186: 557–565.Google Scholar
  33. French, A S (2009). The systems analysis approach to mechanosensory coding. Biological Cybernetics 100: 417–426.Google Scholar
  34. French, A S and Wong, R K S (1976). The responses of trochanteral hair plate sensilla in the cockroach to periodic and random displacements. Biological Cybernetics 22: 33–38.Google Scholar
  35. Fox, C W; Evans, M H; Pearson, M J and Prescott, T J (2012). Towards hierarchical blackboard mapping on a whiskered robot. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 60(11): 1356–1366.Google Scholar
  36. Friston, K; Adams, R A; Perrinet, L and Breakspear, M (2012). Perceptions as hypotheses: Saccades as experiments. Frontiers in Psychology 3: 151.Google Scholar
  37. Froese, T; McGann, M; Bigge, W; Spiers, A and Seth, A K (2012). The enactive torch: A new tool for the science of perception. IEEE Transactions on Haptics 5(4): 363–375.Google Scholar
  38. Gallace, A and Spence, C (2014). In Touch with the Future: The Sense of Touch from Cognitive Neuroscience to Virtual Reality. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  39. Garcia-Anoveros, J and Corey, D P (1997).The molecules of mechanosensation. Annual Review of Neuroscience 20: 567–594.Google Scholar
  40. Gaspard, J C, 3rd et al. (2013). Detection of hydrodynamic stimuli by the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology 199(6): 441–450.Google Scholar
  41. Gebhardt, M J and Honegger, H W (2001). Physiological characterisation of antennal mechanosensory descending interneurons in an insect (Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus campestris) brain. Journal of Experimental Biology 204: 2265–2275.Google Scholar
  42. Gibson, J J (1962). Observations on active touch. Psychological Review 69: 477–491.Google Scholar
  43. Grant, R A; Haidarliu, S; Kennerley, N J and Prescott, T J (2013). The evolution of active vibrissal sensing in mammals: Evidence from vibrissal musculature and function in the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica. Journal of Experimental Biology 216(Pt 18): 3483–3494.Google Scholar
  44. Gregory, R L (1980). Perceptions as hypotheses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 290: 181–197.Google Scholar
  45. Hanke, W et al. (2010). Harbor seal vibrissa morphology suppresses vortex-induced vibrations. Journal of Experimental Biology 213(Pt 15): 2665–2672.Google Scholar
  46. Harley, C M; English, B A and Ritzmann, R E (2009). Characterization of obstacle negotiation behaviors in the cockroach, Blaberus discoidalis. Journal of Experimental Biology 212: 1463–1476.Google Scholar
  47. Hartmann, M J (2001). Active sensing capabilities of the rat whisker system. Autonomous Robots 11: 249–254.Google Scholar
  48. Helmholtz, H (1866/1962). Treatise on Physiological Optics. New York: Dover.Google Scholar
  49. Hertenstein, M J; Holmes, R; McCullough, M and Keltner, D (2009). The communication of emotion via touch. Emotion 9(4): 566–573.Google Scholar
  50. Hines, T M (2001). The G-spot: A modern gynecologic myth. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 185(2): 359–362.Google Scholar
  51. Honegger, H W (1981). A preliminary note on a new optomotor response in crickets: Antennal tracking of moving targets. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 142: 419–421.Google Scholar
  52. Hyvarinen, H; Palviainen, A; Strandberg, U and Holopainen, I J (2009). Aquatic environment and differentiation of vibrissae: Comparison of sinus hair systems of ringed seal, otter and pole cat. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 74(4): 268–279.Google Scholar
  53. Kaas, J H (1997). Topographic maps are fundamental to sensory processing. Brain Research Bulletin 44(2): 107–112.Google Scholar
  54. Kaneko, M; Kanayama, N and Tsuji, T (1998). Active antenna for contact sensing. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation 14(2): 278–291.Google Scholar
  55. Kerr, C E; Wasserman, R H and Moore, C I (2007). Cortical dynamics as a therapeutic mechanism for touch healing. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 13(1): 59–66.Google Scholar
  56. Kersten, D; Mamassian, P and Yuille, A (2004). Object perception as Bayesian inference. Annual Review of Psychology 55: 271–304.Google Scholar
  57. Kleinfeld, D; Ahissar, E and Diamond, M E (2006). Active sensation: Insights from the rodent vibrissa sensorimotor system. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 16(4): 435–444.Google Scholar
  58. Krubitzer, L; Manger, P; Pettigrew, J and Calford, M (1995). Organization of somatosensory cortex in monotremes: In search of the prototypical plan. Journal of Comparative Neurology 351(2): 261–306.Google Scholar
  59. Lederman, S J and Klatzky, R L (1993). Extracting object properties through haptic exploration. Acta Psychologica (Amsterdam) 84(1): 29–40.Google Scholar
  60. Lee, J et al. (2008). Templates and anchors for antenna-based wall following in cockroaches and robots. IEEE Transactions on Robotics 24(1): 130–143.Google Scholar
  61. Lepora, N; Martinez-Hernandez, U and Prescott, T J (2013). A SOLID case for active Bayesian perception in robot touch. In: Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 8064 (pp. 154–166).Google Scholar
  62. Lewis, J E and Kristan, W B (1998a). Representation of touch location by a population of leech sensory neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 80: 2584–2592.Google Scholar
  63. Lewis, J E and Kristan, W B (1998b). A neuronal network for computing population vectors in the leech. Nature 391: 76–79.Google Scholar
  64. Lewinger, W A; Harley, C M; Ritzmann, R E; Branicky, M S and Quinn, R D (2005). Insect-like antennal sensing for climbing and tunneling behavior in a biologically-inspired mobile robot. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA).Google Scholar
  65. Loken, L S; Wessberg, J; Morrison, I; McGlone, F and Olausson, H (2009). Coding of pleasant touch by unmyelinated afferents in humans. Nature Neuroscience 12(5): 547–548.Google Scholar
  66. Ludeman, D A; Farrar, N; Riesgo, A; Paps, J and Leys, S P (2014). Evolutionary origins of sensation in metazoans: Functional evidence for a new sensory organ in sponges. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14(3).Google Scholar
  67. Lungarella, M and Sporns, O (2006). Mapping information flow in sensorimotor networks. PLoS Computational Biology 2(10): e144.Google Scholar
  68. Maderson, P F A (1972). When? Why? and How?: Some speculations on the evolution of the vertebrate integument. American Zoologist 12(1): 159–171.Google Scholar
  69. Maderson, P F A (2003). Mammalian skin evolution: A reevaluation. Experimental Dermatology 12(3): 233–236.Google Scholar
  70. McGlone, F et al. (2012). Touching and feeling: Differences in pleasant touch processing between glabrous and hairy skin in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience 35(11): 1782–1788.Google Scholar
  71. McGlone, F; Wessberg, J and Olausson, H (2014). Discriminative and affective touch: Sensing and feeling. Neuron 82(4): 737–755.Google Scholar
  72. Mitchinson, B et al. (2011). Active vibrissal sensing in rodents and marsupials. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 366(1581): 3037–3048.Google Scholar
  73. Monshausen, G B and Gilroy, S (2009). Feeling green: Mechanosensing in plants. Trends in Cell Biology 19: 228–235.Google Scholar
  74. Muller, K J; Nicholls, J G and Stent, G S (1981). Neurobiology of the Leech. Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Publications.Google Scholar
  75. Nagel, S K; Carl, C; Kringe, T; Märtin, R and König, P (2005). Beyond sensory substitution - learning the sixth sense. Journal of Neural Engineering 2: 4.Google Scholar
  76. Naitoh, Y and Eckert, R (1969). Ionic mechanisms controlling behavioral responses of Paramecium to mechanical stimulation. Science 164: 963–965.Google Scholar
  77. Nicholls, J G and Baylor, D A (1968). Specific modalities and receptive fields of sensory neurons in CNS of leech. Journal of Neurophysiology 31: 740–756.Google Scholar
  78. O’Hagan, R; Chalfie, M and Goodman, M B (2005). The MEC-4 DEG/ENaC channel of Caenorhabditis elegans touch receptor neurons transduces mechanical signals. Nature Neuroscience 8: 43–50.Google Scholar
  79. Olausson, H et al. (2002). Unmyelinated tactile afferents signal touch and project to insular cortex. Nature Neuroscience 5(9): 900–904.Google Scholar
  80. Okada, J and Toh, Y (2000). The role of antennal hair plates in object-guided tactile orientation of the cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Journal of Comparative Physiology A 186: 849–857.Google Scholar
  81. Olausson, H; Wessberg, J; Morrison, I; McGlone, F and Vallbo, A (2010). The neurophysiology of unmyelinated tactile afferents. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 34(2): 185–191.Google Scholar
  82. Penfield, W and Boldrey, E (1937). Somatic motor and sensory representation in the cerebral cortex of man as studies by electrical stimulation. Brain 60(4): 389–443.Google Scholar
  83. Pfeifer, R; Lungarella, M; Sporns, O and Kuniyoshi, Y (2007). On the information theoretic implications of embodiment – Principles and methods. In: M Lungarella, F Iida, J Bongard and R Pfeifer (Eds.), 50 Years of Artificial Intelligence Vol. 4850 (pp. 76–86). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  84. Pocock, R I (1914). On the facial vibrissae of mammalia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 889–912.Google Scholar
  85. Prescott, T J; Diamond, M E and Wing, A M (Eds.) (2011). Active Touch Sensing. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. London: Royal Society Publishing.Google Scholar
  86. Prescott, T J; Pearson, M J; Mitchinson, B; Sullivan, J C W and Pipe, A G (2009). Whisking with robots: From rat vibrissae to biomimetic technology for active touch. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 16(3): 42–50.Google Scholar
  87. Proske, U; Gregory, J E and Iggo, A (1998). Sensory receptors in monotremes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 353(1372): 1187–1198.Google Scholar
  88. Raspopovic, S et al. (2014). Restoring natural sensory feedback in real-time bidirectional hand prostheses. Science Translational Medicine 6(222): 222ra219.Google Scholar
  89. Ray, G C; McCormick-Ray, J; Berg, P and Epstein, H E (2006). Pacific walrus: Benthic bioturbator of Beringia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 230(1): 403–419.Google Scholar
  90. Rice, F L; Mance, A and Munger, B L (1986). A comparative light microscopic analysis of the sensory innervation of the mystacial pad. I. Innervation of vibrissal follicle-sinus complexes. Journal of Comparative Neurology 252(2): 154–174.Google Scholar
  91. Rochat, P and Senders, S J (1991). Active touch in infancy: Action systems in development. In: M J S Weiss and P R Zelazo (Eds.), Newborn Attention: Biological Constraints and the Influence of Experience (pp. 412–442). Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corp.Google Scholar
  92. Rochat, P and Hespos, S J (1997). Differential rooting response by neonates: Evidence for an early sense of self. Early Development and Parenting 6: 105–112.Google Scholar
  93. Russell, R A (1985). Object recognition using articulated whisker probes. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Industrial Robots.Google Scholar
  94. Sandeman, D C (1985). Crayfish antennae as tactile organs: Their mobility and the responses of their proprioceptors to displacement. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 157: 363–374.Google Scholar
  95. Sandeman, D C (1989). Physical properties, sensory receptors and tactile reflexes of the antenna of the Australian freshwater crayfish Cherax destructor. Journal of Experimental Biology 141: 197–218.Google Scholar
  96. Sarko, D K; Reep, R L; Mazurkiewicz, J E and Rice, F L (2007). Adaptations in the structure and innervation of follicle-sinus complexes to an aquatic environment as seen in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Journal of Comparative Neurology 504(3): 217–237.Google Scholar
  97. Sarko, D K; Rice, F L and Reep, R L (2011). Mammalian tactile hair: Divergence from a limited distribution. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1225: 90–100.Google Scholar
  98. Scheich, H; Langner, G; Tidemann, C; Coles, R B and Guppy, A (1986). Electroreception and electrolocation in platypus. Nature 319(6052): 401–402.Google Scholar
  99. Schütz, C and Dürr, V (2011). Active tactile exploration for adaptive locomotion in the stick insect. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 366: 2996–3005.Google Scholar
  100. Soderquist, D R (2002). Sensory Processes. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.Google Scholar
  101. Sokolov, V E and Kulikov, V F (1987). The structure and function of the vibrissal apparatus in some rodents. Mammalia 51(1): 1–15.Google Scholar
  102. Starkiewicz, W and Kuliszewski, W (1963). The 80-channel elektroftalm. International Congress on Technology and Blindness. New York, USA: American Foundation for the Blindness.Google Scholar
  103. Staudacher, E; Gebhardt, M J and Dürr, V (2005). Antennal movements and mechanoreception: Neurobiology of active tactile sensors. Advances in Insect Physiology 32: 49–205.Google Scholar
  104. Tan, D W et al. (2014). A neural interface provides long-term stable natural touch perception. Science Translational Medicine 6(257): 257ra138.Google Scholar
  105. Thomson, E E and Kristan, W B (2006). Encoding and decoding touch location in the leech CNS. The Journal of Neuroscience 26: 8009–8016.Google Scholar
  106. Thurm, U (1964). Mechanoreceptors in the cuticle of the honey bee: Fine structure and stimulus mechanism. Science 145: 1063–1065.Google Scholar
  107. Thurm, U et al. (2004). Mechanoreception and synaptic transmission of hydrozoan nematocytes. Hydrobiologia 530: 97–105.Google Scholar
  108. Uvnäs-Moberg, K; Arn, I and Magnusson, D (2005). The psychobiology of emotion: The role of the oxytocinergic system. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 12(2): 59–65.Google Scholar
  109. Varela, F J; Thompson, E and Rosch, E (1993). The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  110. Vincent, H; Oliver, R A; Manuel, C H; Danny, G and Gabriel, R D L T (2004). Haptic interfaces and devices. Sensor Review 24(1): 16–29.Google Scholar
  111. Vincent, S B (1912). The function of the vibrissae in the behaviour of the white rat. Behavior Monographs 1: 1–82.Google Scholar
  112. Visell, Y (2009). Tactile sensory substitution: Models for enaction in HCI. Interacting with Computers 21(1–2): 38-53.Google Scholar
  113. Weber, E H. (1834/1978). ‘‘The Sense of Touch’’ H E Ross (Trans. of ‘‘De Tactu’’) and D J Murray (Trans. of ‘‘Der Tastsinn’’). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  114. Weinstein, S (1968). Intensive and extensive aspects of tactile sensitivity as a function of body part, sex, and laterality. In: D R Kenshalo (Ed.), The Skin Senses: Proceedings. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  115. Woolsey, T A and Van der Loos, H (1970). The structural organization of layer IV in the somatosensory region (SI) of mouse cerebral cortex. The description of a cortical field composed of discrete cytoarchitectonic units. Brain Research 17(2): 205–242.Google Scholar
  116. Woolsey, T A; Welker, C and Schwartz, R H (1975). Comparative anatomical studies of the SmL face cortex with special reference to the occurrence of “barrels” in layer IV. Journal of Comparative Neurology 164(1): 79–94.Google Scholar
  117. Young, J Z (1983). The distributed tactile memory system of Octopus. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 218: 135–176.Google Scholar
  118. Zeil, J; Sandeman, R and Sandeman, D C (1985). Tactile localisation: The function of active antennal movements in the crayfish Cherax destructor. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 157: 607–617.Google Scholar
  119. Zhai, S; Kristensson, P O; Appert, C; Andersen, T H and Cao, X (2012). Foundational issues in touch-screen stroke gesture design - An integrative review. Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction 5(2): 97–205.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Atlantis Press and the author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Bielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany

Personalised recommendations