How Can Foods, Additives, and Drugs Affect the Patient With Asthma?

  • Suzanne S. Teuber
Part of the Current Clinical Practice book series (CCP)



  • Food-induced asthma is uncommon but especially worth considering in patients with atopic dermatitis and moderate to severe asthma.

  • The key to diagnosing food-induced asthma is not the history but a double-blind, placebocontrolled challenge with spirometry pre- and postchallenge.

  • An important condition in the differential diagnosis of isolated food-induced asthma is systemic food allergy with asthma as one part of the symptom complex. Epinephrine by self-injection is the preferred treatment in this case.


  • Sulfites have been proven to cause bronchospasm or anaphylactic responses in some individuals with asthma. Asking patients about the presence of wheezing after ingestion of white wine is a relevant screening question.

  • Aside from sulfites, no other food additive has been clearly associated with asthma in well-controlled studies, contrary to public perception.

  • The key to diagnosing food additive-induced asthma is a double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge.

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

  • Aspirin and the other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause worsening of asthma in approx 10–15% of patients with asthma, but many will not be aware of it.

  • Desensitization can be helpful in reducing asthma and rhinitis symptoms.


Atopic Dermatitis Food Allergy Allergy Clin Immunol Occupational Asthma Food Challenge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Roberts G, Patel N, Levi-Schaffer F, Habibi P, Lack G. Food allergy as a risk factor for life-threatening asthma in childhood: a case-controlled study. JAllergy Clin Immunol 2003; 112: 168–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bock SA, Munoz-Furlong A, Sampson HA. Fatalities due to anaphylactic reactions to foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 107: 191–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Woods RK, Thien FC, Abramson MJ. Dietary marine fatty acids (fish oil) for asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Systemic Rev 2002; 3: CD001283.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Peat JK, Mihrshahi S, Kemp AS, et al. Three-year outcomes of dietary fatty acid modification and house dust mite reduction in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 114: 807–813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Oddy WH, de Klerk NH, Kendall GE, Mihrshahi S, Peat JK. Ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and childhood asthma. J Asthma 2004; 41: 319–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Woods RK, Raven JM, Walters EH, Abramson MJ, Thien FC. Fatty acid levels and risk of asthma in young adults. Thorax 2004; 59: 105–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Woods RK, Walters EH, Raven JM, et al. Food and nutrient intakes and asthma risk in young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78: 414–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sloan AE, Powers ME. A perspective on popular perceptions of adverse reactions to foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986; 78: 127–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Altman DR, Chiaramone LT. Public perception of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996; 97: 1247–1251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sampson HA. Update on food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 113: 805–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Parker SL, Leznoff A, Sussman GL, et al. Characteristics of patients with food-related complaints. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 86: 503–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bruijnzeel-Koomen C, Ortolani C, Aas K, et al. Adverse reactions to food. Allergy 1995; 50: 623–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johansson S, Hourihane JO’B, Bousquet J, et al. A revised nomenclature for allergy. An EAACI position statement from the EAACI nomenclature task force. Allergy 2001; 56: 813–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sicherer SH, Teuber SS, and the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee. Current approach to the diagnosis and management of adverse reactions to foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 114: 1146–1150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jakobsson I, Lindberg T. A prospective study of cow’s milk protein intolerance in Swedish infants. Acta Pediatr Scand 1979; 68: 853–859.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Host A, Halken S. A prospective study of cow milk allergy in Danish infants during the first 3 years of life. Allergy 1990; 45: 587–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schrander JJP, van den Bogart JPH, Forget PP, et al. Cow’s milk protein intolerance in infants under 1 year of age: a prospective epidemiological study. Eur J Pediatr 1993; 152: 640–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sicherer SH, Munoz-Furlong A, Sampson HA. Prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy in the United States determined by means of a random digit dial telephone survey: a 5-year follow-up study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 112: 1203–1207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sicherer SH, Munoz-Furlong A, Sampson HA. Prevalence of seafood allergy in the United States determined by a random telephone survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 114: 159–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eggesbo M, Botten G, Halvorsen R, Magnus P. The prevalence of allergy to egg: a population-based study in young children. Allergy 2001; 56: 403–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Woods RK, Weiner J, Abramson M, Thein F, Walters EH. Patients’ perceptions of food-induced asthma. AustrNZJMed 1996; 26: 504–512.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Onorato J, Merland N, Terral C, et al. Placebo-controlled double-blind food challenge in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986; 78: 1139–1146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Novembre E, de Martino M, Vierucci A. Foods and respiratory allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988; 81: 1059–1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oehling A, Cagnani CEB. Food allergy and child asthma. Allergol Immunopathol 1980; 8: 7–14.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    James JM, Eigenmann PA, Eggleston PA, Sampson HA. Airway reactivity changes in asthmatic patients undergoing blinded food challenges. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 153: 597–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zwetchkenbaum JF, Skufca R, Nelson HS. An examination of food hypersensitivity as a cause of increased bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991; 88: 360–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Martin JA, Compaired JA, de la Hoz B, et al. Bronchial asthma induced by chick pea and lentil. Allergy 1992; 47: 185–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Roberts G, Golder N, Lack G. Bronchial challenges with aerosolized food in asthmatic food-allergic children. Allergy 2002; 57: 713–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Polasani R, Melgar L, Reisman RE, Ballow M. Hot dog vapor-induced status asthmaticus. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997; 78: 35–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goetz DW, Whisman BA. Occupational asthma in a seafood restaurant worker: cross-reactivity of shrimp and scallops. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000; 85: 431–433.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sicherer SH, Furlong TJ, DeSimone J, Sampson HA. Self-reported allergic reactions to peanut on commercial airliners. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104: 186–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee SY, Lee KS, Hong CH, Lee KY. Three cases of childhood nocturnal asthma due to buckwheat allergy. Allergy 2001; 56: 763–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pascual CY, Crespo JF, Dominguez-Noche C, et al. IgE-binding proteins in fish and fish steam. Monogr Allergy 1996; 32: 174–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Houba R, Doekes G, Heederik D. Occupational respiratory allergy in bakery workers: a review of the literature. Am J Ind Med 1998; 34: 529–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bernaola G, Echechipia S, Urrutia I, et al. Occupational asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis from inhalation of dried cow’s mild caused by sensitization to alpha-lactalbumin. Allergy 1994; 49: 189–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jeebhay MF, Robins TG, Lehrer SB, Lopata AL. Occupational seafood allergy: a review. Occup Environ Med 2001; 58: 553–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Crespo JF, Rodriguez J, Vives R, et al. Occupational IgE-mediated allergy after exposure to lupine seed flour. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 108: 295–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zuskin E, Kanceljak B, Schachter EN, Mustajbegovic J. Respiratory function and immunologic status in workers processing dried fruits and teas. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996; 77: 317–322.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zuskin E, Kanceljak B, Schachter EN, et al. Respiratory function and immunologic status in cocoa and flour processing workers. Am J Ind Med 1998; 33: 24–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Smith AB, Bernstein DI, London MA, et al. Evaluation of occupational asthma from airborne egg protein exposure in multiple settings. Chest 1990; 98: 398–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Larese F, Fiorito A, Casasola F, et al. Sensitization to green coffee beans and work-related allergic symptoms in coffee workers. Am J Ind Med 1998; 34: 623–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Harding SM. Gastroesophageal reflux and asthma: insight into the association. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104: 251–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Simon RA, Stevenson DD, Arrygave CM, Tan EM. The relationship of plasma histamine to the activity of bronchial asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1977; 60: 312–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Morrow JD, Margolies GR, Rowland BS, Roberts LJ. Evidence that histamine is the causative toxin of scombroid-fish poisoning. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 716–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Feldman JM. Histaminuria from histamine rich foods. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143: 2099–2102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wantke F, Hemmer W, Haglmuller T, Gotz M, Jarisch R. Histamine in wine. Bronchoconstriction after a double-blind placebo-controlled red wine provocation test. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1996; 110:397–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wohrl S, Hemmer W, Focke M, Rappersberger K, Jarisch R. Histamine intolerance-like symptoms in healthy volunteers after oral provocation with liquid histamine. Allergy Asthma Proc 2004; 25: 305–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Uragoda CG, Kottegoda SR. Adverse reactions to isoniazid on ingestion of fish with a high histamine content. Tubercle 1977; 58: 83–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bock S, Buckley J, Holst A, et al. Proper use of skin tests with food extracts in diagnosis of food hypersensitivity. Clin Allergy 1978; 8: 559–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sampson HA, Albergo R. Comparison of results of skin tests, RAST, and double-blind placebocontrolled food challenges in children with atopic dermatitis. JAllergy Clin Immunol 1984; 74: 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bousquet J, Chanez P, Michel R The respiratory tract and food hypersensitivity. In: Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives. Metcalfe D, Sampson H, Simon R (eds.). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Boston, 1991, pp. 139–149.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bock SA, Sampson HA, Atkins FM, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge as an office procedure: a manual. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988; 82: 986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vierk K, Falci K, Wolniak C, Klontz KC. Recalls of foods containing undeclared allergens reported to the US Food and Drug Administration, fiscal year 1999. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 109: 1022–1026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Burks W, Lehrer SB, Bannon GA. New approaches for treatment of peanut allergy: chances for a cure. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2004; 27: 191–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Teuber SS, Porch-Curren C. Unproved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to food allergy and intolerance. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 3: 217–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Skolnick HS, Conover-Walker MK, Koerner CB, et al. The natural history of peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 107: 367–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Asmus MJ, Sherman J, Hendeles L. Bronchoconstictor additives in bronchodilator solutions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104: S53–S60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Weber RW, Hoffman M, Rane DA, Nelson HS. Incidence of bronchoconstrictions due to aspirin, azo dyes, non-azo dyes, and preservatives in a population of perennial asthmatic. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1979; 64: 32–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stevenson DD, Simon RA, Lumry WR, Mathison DA. Adverse reactions to tartrazine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986; 78: 182–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pleskow WW, Stevenson DD, Mathison DA, et al. Aspirin-sensitive rhinosinusitis/asthma: spectrum of adverse reactions to aspirin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1983; 71: 574–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Simon RA. Specific challenge procedures: experimental methodology for studies of adverse reactions to foods and food additives. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 86: 428–436.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kochen J. Sulfur dioxide, a respiratory tract irritant, even if ingested (letter). Pediatrics 1973; 52: 145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Taylor SL, Bush RK, Nordlee JA. Sulfites. In Metcalfe DD, Sampson HA, Simon RA (eds.). Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Food and Food Additives. Blackwell Scientific, Boston, 1997, pp. 339–357.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Simon RA, Green L, Stevenson DD. The incidence of ingested metabisulfite sensitivity in an asthmatic population [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982; 69: 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bush RK, Taylor SL, Holden K, Nordlee JA, Busse WW. The prevalence of sensitivity to sulfiting agents in asthmatics. AmJMed 1986; 81: 816–820.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sokol WN, Hydick IB. Nasal congestion, urticaria, and angioedema caused by an IgE-mediated reaction to sodium metabisulfite. Ann Allergy 1990; 65: 233–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yang WH, Purchase ECR, Rivington RN. Positive skin tests and Prausnitz-Kustner reactions in metabisulfite sensitive subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986; 78: 443–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wright W, Zhang YG, Salome CM, Woolcock AJ. Effect of inhaled preservatives on asthmatic subjects. I. Sodium metabisulfite. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990; 141: 1400–1404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    January 23, 1985. Sulfites on shrimp. Fed Regist 1985; 50: 2957.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    July 9, 1986. Sulfiting agents; revocation of Generally Recognized as Safe status for use on fruits and vegetables intended to be served or sold raw to consumers. Fed Regist 1986; 51: 25021.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    September 30, 1986. Labeling of sulfites in alcoholic beverages. BATF Notice No. 566. Fed Regist 1986; 51: 34706.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nagy SM, Teuber SS, Loscutoff SM, Murphy PJ. Clustered outbreak of adverse reactions to a salsa containing high levels of sulfites. J Food Prot 1995; 58: 95–97.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Timbo B, Koehler KM, Wolyniak C, Klontz KC. Sulfites—a food and drug administration review of recalls and reported adverse events. J Food Prot 2004; 67: 1806–1811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Taylor SL, Bush RK, Selner JC, et al. Sensitivity to sulfited foods among sulfite-sensitive subjects with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982; 69: 335–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vally H, Thompson PJ. Role of sulfite additives in wine induced asthma: single doses and cumulative dose studies. Thorax 2001; 56: 763–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Boushey HA. Bronchial hyperreactivity to sulfur dioxide: physiologic and political implications. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982; 69: 335–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Delohery J, Simmul R, Castle WD, Allen DH. The relationship of inhaled sulfur dioxide reactivity to ingested metabisulfite sensitivity in patients with asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 130: 1027–1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Simon R, Goldfarb G, Jacobsen D. Blocking studies in sulfite-sensitive asthmatics (SSA) [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1984; 73: 136.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bellofiore S, Caltagirone F, Pennisi A, et al. Neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, thiorphan, increases airway narrowing to inhaled sodium metabisulfite in normal subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150: 853–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Simon RA. Sulfite sensitivity. Ann Allergy 1986; 56: 281–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bush RK. Sulfite and aspirin sensitivity: who is most susceptible? J Respir Dis 1987; 8: 23–32.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Allen DH, Delohery J, Baker GJ. Monosodium L-glutamate induced asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987; 80: 530–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Filer LJ, Stegink LD, eds. A report of the proceeding of aMSG workshop held August 1991. Crit Rev FoodSciNutr 1994; 34: 159–174.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Woessner KM, Simon RA, Stevenson DD. Monosodium glutamate sensitivity in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104: 305–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Stevenson DD. Monosodium glutamate and asthma. JNutr 2000; 130: 1067S–1073S.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stevenson DD, Simon RA, Lumry WR, Mathison DA. Adverse reactions to tartrazine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986; 78: 182–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Murdoch D, Pollock I, Young E, Lessof MH. Food additive induced urticaria: studies of mediator release during provocation tests. J Royal College Phys 1987; 4: 262–266.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Spector SL, Wangaard CH, Farr RS. Aspirin and concomitant idiosyncrasies in adult asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1979; 64: 500–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Stenius BSM, Lemola M. Hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and tartrazine in patients with asthma. Clin Allergy 1976; 6: 119–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Virchow C, Szczeklik A, Bianco S, et al. Intolerance to tartrazine in aspirin-induced asthma: results of a multicenter study. Respiration 1988; 53: 20–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Stevenson DD, Simon RA, Lumry WR, Mathison DA. Pulmonary reactions to tartrazine. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1992; 3: 222–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Caucino JA, Armenaka M, Rosensteich DL. Anaphylaxis associated with a change in Premarin dye formulation. Ann Allergy 1994; 72: 33–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gross PA, Lance K, Whitlock RJ, et al. Additive allergy: allergic gastroenteritis due to yellow dye #6. Ann Intern Med 1989; 111: 87–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jacobsen DW. Adverse reactions to benzoates and parabens. In: Food allergy: Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives. 2nd ed. Metcalfe DD, Sampson HA, Simon RA (eds.). Blackwell Science, Cambridge, MA, 1997, pp. 375–386.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hoffman M. Challenges with aspirin, FD and C dyes and preservatives in asthma [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1976; 57: 206–207.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tarlo SM, Broder I. Tartrazine and benzoate challenge and dietary avoidance in chronic asthma. Clin Allergy 1982; 12: 303–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nagel JE, Fuscaldo JT, Fireman P. Paraben allergy. JAMA 1977; 237: 1594–1595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Goodman DL, McDonnell JT, Nelson HS, Vaughan TR, Weber RW. Chronic urticaria exacerbated by the antioxidant food addives, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 86: 570–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kim SH, Ahn Y. Anaphylaxis caused by benzalkonium in a nebulizer solution. J Korean Med Sci 2004; 19: 289–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Beasley CRW, Rafferty P, Holgate ST. Bronchoconstrictor properties of preservatives in ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) nebulizer solution. Br Med J 1987; 294: 1197–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hedman J, Kaprio J, Poussa T, Nieminen MM. Prevalence of asthma, aspirin intolerance, nasal polyposis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a population-based study. Int J Epidemiol 1999; 28: 717–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kasper L, Stadek K, Duplaga M, et al. Prevalence of asthma with aspirin hypersensitivity in the adult population of Poland. Allergy 2003; 58: 1064–1066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Vally H, Taylor ML, Thompson PJ. The prevalence of aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) in Australian asthmatic patients. Thorax 2002; 57: 569–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Szczeklik A, Nizankowska E, Duplaga M on behalf of the AIANE Investigators. Natural history of aspirin-induced asthma. Eur Respir J 2000; 16: 432=436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Berges-Gimeno MP, Simon RA, Stevenson DD. The natural history and clinical characteristics of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002; 89: 472–478.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Szczeklik A, Stevenson DD. Aspirin-induced asthma: advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. JAllergy Clin Immunol 2003; 111: 913–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Picado C, Fernandez-Morata JC, Juan M, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA is downexpressed in nasal polyps from aspirin-sensitive asthmatics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999; 160: 291–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Cowburn AS, Sladek K, Soja J, et al. Overexpression of leukotriene C4 synthase in bronchial biopsies from patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma. J Clin Invest 1998; 101: 834–846.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pierzchalska M, Szabo Z, Sanak M, Soja J, Szczeklik A. Deficient prostaglan E2 production by bronchial fibroblasts of asthmatic patients with special reference to aspirin-induced asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 111: 1041–1048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gylifors P, Bochenek G, Overholt J, et al. Biochemical and clinical evidence that aspirin intolerant asthmatic subjects tolerate the cyclooxygenase 2-selective analgetic drug celecoxib. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 111: 1116–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Stevenson DD, Simon RA. Lack of cross-reactivity between rofexocib and aspirin-sensitive patients with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 108: 47–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Jinnai N, Sakagami T, Kakihara M, et al. Polymorphisms in the prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 2 gene confer susceptibility to aspirin-intolerant asthma: a candidate gene approach. Hum Mol Genet 2004; 13: 3203–3217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Daffern PJ, Muilenburg D, Hugli TE, Stevenson DD. Association of urinary leukotriene E4 excretion during aspirin challenges with severity of respiratory responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104: 559–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Christie PE, Tagari P, Ford-Hutchinson AW, et al. Urinary leukotriene E4 concentrations increase after aspirin challenges in aspirin-sensitive asthmatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 143: 1025–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Arm JP, O’Hickey SP, Spur BW, et al. Airway responsiveness to histamine and leukotriene E4 in subjects with aspirin-induced asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; 140: 148–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sousa AR, Parkih A, Scadding G, Corrigan CJ, Lee TH. Leukotriene-receptor expression on nasal mucosal inflammatory cells in aspirin-sensitive rhinosinusitis. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1493–1499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Stevenson DD. Oral challenge: aspirin, NSAIDs, tartrazine and sulfites. N Engl Regional Allergy Proc 1984; 5: 111–118.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Melillo G, Balzano G, Bianco S, et al. Oral and inhalation provocation tests for the diagnosis of aspirin-induced asthma. Allergy 2001; 56: 899–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Stevenson DD, Hougham AJ, Schrank PJ, Goldlust MB, Wilson RR. Salsalate cross-sensitivity in aspirin-sensitive patients with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 86: 749–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Settipane RA, Stevenson DD. Cross-sensitivity with acetaminophen in aspirin-sensitive subjects with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989; 84: 26–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Settipane RA, Shrank PJ, Simon RA, et al. Prevalence of cross-sensitivity with acetaminophen in aspirin sensitive subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995; 96: 480–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bavbek S, Celik G, Ozer F, Mungan D, Misirligil Z. Safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors in aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-intolerant patients: comparison of nimesulide, meloxicam, and rofecoxib. J Asthma 2004; 41: 67–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Dahlen SE, Malmstrom K, Nizankowska E, et al. Improvement of aspirin-intolerant asthma by montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 165: 9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Dahlen B, Nizankowska E, Szczeklik A, et al. Benefits from adding the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton to conventional therapy in aspirin-intolerant asthmatics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157: 1187–1194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Berges-Gimeno M, Simon RA, Stevenson DD. Treatment with aspirin desensitization in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 111: 180–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Berges-Gimeno MP, Simon RA, Stevenson DD. Early effects of aspirin desensitization treatment in asthmatic patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2003; 90: 338–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne S. Teuber
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Rheumatology/Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, School of MedicineUniversity of California at DavisDavis

Personalised recommendations