National Institute of Justice. 2000 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring: Annual Report. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Washington D.C., 2000.
Bennett, T. and Holloway K. Drug use and offending: summary results of the first two years of the NEW-ADAM programme. Findings 179. Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. London: Home Office. Detailed report available online—Holloway, K. and Bennett, T. The results of the first two years of the NEW-ADAM programme. Home Office Online Report 19/04. Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. London: Home Office, 2004.
Association of Police Surgeons and Royal College of Psychiatrists. Substance Misuse Detainees in Police Custody. Guidelines for Clinical Management, 2nd Ed. Report of a Medical Working Group. Council Report CR81. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2000.
Drug Enforcement Administration. Illegal Drug Price and Purity Report. Drug Intelligence Report. US Department of Justice. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2003
Corkery, J. M. Drug Seizure and Offender Statistics, United Kingdom 2002. Home Office, London, 2002.
Nicholson, F. Infectious diseases and an at risk exposure. In: Stark M.M., Rogers D.J., Norfolk G.A. eds., Good Practice Guidelines for Forensic Medical Examiners-Metropolitan Police. GPG Editors, Oxford, 2004.
Norfolk, G. A., and Gray S. F. Intravenous drug users and broken needles—a hidden risk? Addiction. 98:1163–1166, 2003.
Wallace, P., Cutler, S., Haines, A. Randomised controlled trial of general practitioner intervention in patients with excessive alcohol consumption. Br. Med. J. 297:663–668, 1988.
Porchaska, J. O., and Clemente. C. C. The Transtheoretical Approach: Crossing Traditional Boundaries of therapy, Dow-Jones-Irwin, Homewood, IL, 1984.
Edmunds, M., May, T., Hearnden, I., Hough, M. Arrest Referral: Emerging Lessons from Research. Home Office Drugs Prevention Initiative Paper 23. Home Office, London, 1998.
Department of Health. The Scottish Office Department of Health. Welsh Office. Department of Health and Social Services, Northern Ireland. Drug Misuse and Dependence—Guidelines on Clinical Management. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1999.
Tennant, F. and Shannon, J. Cocaine abuse in methadone maintenance patients is associated with low serum methadone concentrations. J. Addict. Dis. 14:67–74, 1995.
Gossop, M., Marsden, J., Stewart, D., Kidd, T. The National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS): 4-5 year follow-up results. Addiction. 98:291–303, 2003.
Karch, S. B. Medical consequences of opiate abuse. In: Karch, S. B., ed., The Pathology of Drug Abuse. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2002, pp. 392–400.
Nutt, D. J. Addiction: brain mechanisms and their treatment implications. Lancet. 347:31–36, 1996.
Ling, W. and Wesson, D. R. Drugs of abuse: opiates, in addiction medicine (Special Edition). West. J. Med. 152: 565–572, 1990.
Phillips, G. T., Gossop, M., Bradley, B. The influence of psychological factors on opiate withdrawal syndrome. Brit. J. Psychiatry. 149:235–238, 1986.
Ruben, S. M., McLean, P. C., Melville, J. Cyclizine abuse among a group of opiate dependents receiving methadone. Br. J. Addict. 84:929–934, 1989.
De Wet, C.J., Reed, L.J., Glasper, A., Moran, P. Bearn, J., Gossop, M. Benzodiazepine co-dependence exacerbates the opiate withdrawal syndrome. SSA Symposium Abstracts. Addict. Biol. 9:100, 2004.
Evans, J. V. Dihydrocodeine detox regime. HMP Manchester, personal communication, 1998.
Washton, A. M., Resnick, R. B., Geyer, G. Opiate withdrawal using lofexidine, a clonidine analogue with few side effects. J. Clin. Psychiatry. 44, 335–337, 1983.
Ford, C., Morton, S., Lintzeris, N., Bury, J., Gerada C. Guidance for the Use of Buprenorphine for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence in Primary Care. Royal College of General Practitioners, London, 2003.
Stark, M. M. Substance misusers (drugs and alcohol) in custody. In: Stark M.M., Rogers D.J., and Norfolk G.A., eds., Good Practice Guidelines for Forensic Medical Examiners—Metropolitan Police. GPG Editors, Oxford, 2004.
Roth, B., Benowitz, N., Olson, K. Emergency management of drug-abuse-related disorders. In: Karch, S. B., ed., Drug Abuse Handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 567–639, 1998.
Ghodse, H. Drugs of abuse and dependence. In: Ghodse, H. ed., Drugs and Addictive Behaviour—A Guide to Treatment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002, p. 105.
Yealy, D. M., Paris, P. M., Kaplan, R. M., Heller, M. B., Marini, S. E. The safety of prehospital naloxone administration by paramedics. Ann. Emerg. Med. 19:902–905, 1990.
Jones, A. L. Initial management of poisoned patients in the out-of-hospital environment. Pre-Hospital Immediate Care. 2:141–149, 1998.
Merigian, K. S. Cocaine-induced ventricular arrhythmias and rapid atrial fibrillation temporarily related to naloxone administration. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 11:96–97, 1993.
Ashton, H. Guidelines for the rational use of benzodiazepines. When and what to use. Drugs. 48:25–40, 1994.
Cowen, P. J. and Nutt, D. J. Abstinence symptoms after withdrawal of tranquillising drugs. Is there a common neurochemical mechanism? Lancet. 2:360–362, 1982.
Bezchlibnyk-Butler, K. Z., Jeffries, J. J. Clinical Handbook of Psychotropic Drugs. Hogrefe and Huber, Toronto, 1996.
Vgontzas, A. N., Kales, A., Bixler, E. O. Benzodiazepine side effects: role of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacology. 51:205–223, 1995.
Editorial. Tranquillisers causing aggression. Br. Med. J. 1:113–114, 1975.
Gordon, E. B. Tranquillisers causing aggression. Br. Med. J. 2:36–37, 1975.
Zevin, S., and Benowitz, N. L. Drug-related syndromes. In: Karch, S. B., ed., Drug Abuse Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 559–560, 1998.
Ashton, H. Benzodiazepine withdrawal: an unfinished story. Br. Med. J. 288:1135–1140, 1984.
Petursson, H. The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Addiction. 89:1455–1459, 1994.
Roald, O. K., and Dahl, V. Flunitrazepam intoxication in a child successfully treated with the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil. Crit Care Med. 17:1355–1356, 1989.
Hojer, J., Baehrendtz, S., Matell, G., Gustafsson, L. L. Diagnostic utility of flumazenil in coma with suspected poisoning: a double blind randomised controlled study. Br. Med. J. 301:1308–1311, 1990.
Katz, Y., Boulos, M., Singer, P., Rosenberg, B. Cardiac arrest associated with Flumazenil. Br. Med. J. 304,:1415, 1992.
Ives, R. Drug Notes: 6 Solvents. Drugscope, London, 2002.
Al-Alousi, L. M. Pathology of volatile substance abuse: a case report and a literature review. Med Sci Law. 29:189–208, 1989.
Ron, M. A. Volatile substance abuse: a review of possible long-term neurological, intellectual and psychiatric sequelae. Br. J. Psychiatry. 148:235–246, 1986.
Shepherd, R. T. Mechanism of sudden death associated with volatile substance abuse. Hum Toxicol. 8:287–292, 1989.
Taylor, G. J. and Harris, W. S. Cardiac toxicity of aerosol propellants. JAMA. 214:81–85, 1970.
Merry, J. and Zachariadis, N. Addiction to glue sniffing. Br. Med. J. 2:1448, 1962.
Leikin, J. B., Krantz, A. J., Zell-Kanter, M., Barkin, R. L., Hryhorczuk, D. O. Clinical features and management of intoxication due to hallucinogenic drugs. Med. Toxicol. Adverse Drug Exp. 4:324–350, 1989.
Hollister, L. E. and Hartman, A. M. Mescaline, lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin: comparison of clinical syndromes, effects on color perception and biochemical measures. Comp. Psychiatry. 3:235–241, 1962.
Abraham, H. D. and Aldridge, A. M. Adverse consequences of lysergic acid diethylamide. Addiction. 88:1327–1334, 1993.
Schwartz, R. H. LSD. Its rise, fall and renewed popularity among high school students. Pediatric Clin. North Am. 42:403–413, 1995.
McCarron, M. M., Schulze, B. W., Thompson, G. A., Conder, M.C., Goetz, W. A. Acute phencyclidine intoxication:clinical patterns, complications and treatment. Ann. Emerg. Med. 10:290–297, 1981.
Brust, J. C. M. Other agents. Phencyclidine, marijuana, hallucinogens, inhalants and anticholinergics. Neurol. Clin. 11, 555–561, 1993.
Aniline, O. and Pitts Jr, F. N. Phencyclidine (PCP): a review and perspectives. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 10:145–177, 1982.
Steele, T. D., McCann, U. D., Ricaurte, G. A. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”): pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans. Addiction. 89:539–551, 1994.
Maxwell, D. L., Polkey, M. I., Henry, J. A. Hyponatraemia and catatonic stupor after taking “ecstasy.” Br. Med. J. 307:1399, 1993.
Kessel, B. Hyponatraemia after ingestion of “ecstasy.” Br. Med. J. 308:414, 1994.
Henry, J. A., Fallon, J. K., Kicman, A. T., Hutt, A. J., Cowan, D. A., Forsling, M. Low-dose MDMA (“ecstasy”) induces vasopressin secretion. Lancet. 351:1784, 1998.
Redfearn, P. J., Agrawal, N., Mair, L. H. An association between the regular use of 3,4, methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (ecstasy) and excessive wear of the teeth. Addiction. 93:745–748, 1998.
Shearman, J. D., Chapman, R. W. G., Satsangi, J., Ryley, N. G. Misuse of ecstasy. Br. Med. J. 305:309, 1992.
Creighton, F. J., Black, D. L., Hyde, C. E. “Ecstasy” psychosis and flashbacks. Br. J. Psychiatry. 159:713–715, 1991.
Levine, A. J., Drew, S., Rees, G. M. “Ecstasy” induced pneumomediastinum. J. Royal Soc. Med. 86:232–233, 1993.
Bryden, A. A., Rothwell, P. J. N., O’Reilly, P. H. Urinary retention with misuse of “ecstasy”. Br. Med. J. 310:504, 1995.
Chadwick, I. S., Curry, P. D., Linsley, A., Freemont, A. J., Doran, B. Ecstasy, 3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a fatality associated with coagulopathy and hyperthermia. J. Royal Soc. Med. 84:371, 1991.
Brown, C., and Osterloh, J. Multiple severe complications from recreational ingestion of MDMA (“ecstasy”). JAMA. 258:780–781, 1987.
Dowling, G. P., McDonough, E. T., Bost, R. O. “Eve” and “ecstasy.” A report of five deaths associated with the use of MDEA and MDMA. JAMA. 257:1615–1617, 1987.
Campkin, N. T. A. and Davies, U. M. Another death from Ecstasy. J. Royal Soc. Med. 85:61, 1992.
McGuire, P. and Fahy, T. Chronic paranoid psychosis after misuse of MDMA (ecstasy). Br. Med. J. 302:697, 1991.
Sternbach, H. The serotonin syndrome. Am. J. Psychiatry. 148:705–713, 1991.
Mueller, P. D. and Korey, W. S. Death by “ecstasy”: the serotonin syndrome? Ann. Emerg. Med. 32:377–380, 1991.
McCann, U. D., Szabo, Z., Scheffel, U., Dannals, R. F., Ricaurte, G. A. Positron emission tomographic evidence of toxic effect of MDMA (“ecstasy”) on brain serotonin neurons in human beings. Lancet. 352:1433–1437, 1998.
James, R. A. and Dinan, A. Hyperpyrexia associated with fatal paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA) abuse. Med Sci Law. 38:83–85, 1998.
Resnick, R. B., Kestenbaum, R. S., Schwartz, L. K. Acute systemic effects of cocaine in man—a controlled study by intranasal and intravenous routes. Science. 195:696–698, 1977.
Karch, S. B. Cocaine. In: Karch, S. B., ed., The Pathology of Drug Abuse. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2002, pp. 91–120.
Griffiths, P., Gossop, M., Wickenden, S., Dunworth, J., Harris, K., Lloyd, C. A transcultural pattern of drug use: qat (khat) in the UK. Br. J. Psychiatry. 170:281–284, 1997.
Ahmed, A. G., and Salib, E. The Khat users: a study of khat chewing in Liverpool’s Somali men. Med Sci Law. 38:165–169, 1998.
Joyce, H. Khat. J. Forensic Psychiatry. 5:228–231, 1994.
Luqman, W., and Danowski, T. S. The use of khat (Catha edulis) in Yemen. Social and medical observations. Ann. Intern. Med. 85, 246–249, 1976.
Yousef, G., Huq, Z., Lambert, T. Khat chewing as a cause of psychosis. Br. J. Hosp. Med. 54:322–326, 1995.
Pantelis, C., Hindler, C. G., Taylor, J. C. Use and abuse of khat (Catha edulis): a review of the distribution, pharmacology, side effects, and a description of psychosis attributed to khat chewing. Psychol Med. 19:657–658, 1989.
Condon, J., and Smith, N. Prevalence of drug use: key findings from the 2002/2003 British Crime Survey. Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. London, 2003.
Cohen, J., and Hayes, G. Drug Notes: 3 Cannabis. Drugscope, London, 2002.
Wylie, A. S., Scott, R. T. A., Burnett, S. J. Psychosis due to “skunk.” Br. Med. J. 311:125, 1995.
British Medical Association. Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, 1997, pp. 19–20.
Stephens, R. S., Roffman, R. A., Simpson, E. E. Adult marijuana users seeking treatment. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 61:1100–1104, 1993.
Bhasin, S., Storer, T. W., Berman, N., et al. The effects of superphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. N. Engl. J. Med. 335:1–7, 1996.
Kennedy, M. Athletes, drugs and adverse reactions. Adverse Drug Reaction Bull. 143, 536–539, 1990.
ISDD. Drug Notes 9: Anabolic Steroids. ISDD, London.
Haupt, H. A. and Rovere, G. D. Anabolic steroids: a review of the literature. Am. J. Sports Med. 12:469–484, 1984.
Stanley, A. and Ward, M. Anabolic steroids—the drugs that give and take away manhood. A case with an unusual physical sign. Med. Sci. Law. 34, 82–83, 1994.
Lloyd, F. H. Powell, P., Murdoch, A. P. Anabolic steroid abuse by body builders and male subfertility. Br. Med. J. 313:100–101, 1996.
Creagh, T. M., Rubin, A., Evans, D. J. Hepatic tumours induced by anabolic steroids in an athlete. J. Clin. Pathol. 41:441–443, 1988.
Su, T., Pagliaro M., Schmidt, P. J., Pickar, D., Wolkowitz, O., Rubinow D. R. Neuropsychiatric effects of anabolic steroids in male normal volunteers. JAMA. 269:2760–2764, 1993.
Pope, H. G. and Katz, D. L. Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 51:375–382, 1994.
Corrigan, B. Anabolic steroids and the mind. Med. J. Aust. 165:222–226, 1996.
British Medical Association. Drugs in Sport. The Pressure to Perform. BMA, London, 2002.
Perry, H. M., Wright, D., Littlepage, B. N. C. Dying to be big: a review of anabolic steroid use. Br J Sports Med. 26:259–261, 1992.
Littlepage, B. N. C. and Perry, H. M. Misusing anabolic drugs: possibilities for future policies. Addiction. 88:1469–1471, 1993.
McBride, A. J., Williamson, K., Petersen, T. Three cases of nalbuphine hydrochloride dependence associated with anabolic steroid use. Br. J. Sports Med. 30:69–70, 1996.
Elkin, S. L., Brady, S., Williams, I. P. Bodybuilders find it easy to obtain insulin to help them in training. Br. Med. J. 314:1280, 1997.
FitzSimmons, C. R. and Kidner, N. Caffeine toxicty in a bodybuilder. J. Acid Emerg. Med. 15:196–1970, 1998.
Perry, H. M. and Littlepage, B. N. C. Misusing anabolic drugs. Br. Med. J. 305:1241–1242, 1992.
Roth, R. H. and Giarman, N. J. Natural occurrence of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in mammalian brain. Biochem. Pharmacol. 19:1087–1093, 1970.
Galloway, G. P., Frederick, S. L., Staggers Jr, F. E., Gonzales, M., Stalcup, S. A., and Smith, D. E. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: an emerging drug of abuse that causes physical dependence. Addiction. 92:89–96, 1997.
Cohen, J. Drug Notes: 9 Poppers, Ketamine and GHB. London, Drugscope, 2002.
Ferrara, S. D., Zotti, S., Tedeshi, L., et al. Pharmacokinetics of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in alcohol dependent patients after single and repeated oral doses. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 34:231–235, 1992
Luby, S., Jones, J., and Zalewski, A. GHB use in South Carolina. Am. J. Public Health. 82:128, 1992.
Thomas, G., Bonner, S., and Gascoigne, A. Coma induced by abuse of gammahydroxybutyrate: a case report. Br. Med. J. 314, 35–36, 1997.
Dyer, J. E. ER admission cases discussed, in Getting the Scoop on GHB: The New Recreational Drug. Presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, New York, 1997
Dyer, J. E., Kreutzer, R., Quatrrone, A., et al. Multistate outbreak of poisonings associated with the illicit use of gammahydroxybutyrate. JAMA. 265: 447–448, 1992.
McDonough, M. Glasper, A., Bearn, J. Managing gamma hydroxybutyrate or “liquid ecstasy” withdrawal-meta-analysis of published cases and reporting early experience in the UK. SSA Symposium Abstracts. Addiction Biology. 8:2,241–242, 2003.
Cohen, J. Drug Notes: 9 Poppers, Ketamine and GHB. London, Drugscope, 2002
Jansen, K. L. R. Non-medical use of ketamine. BMJ. 306: 601–602, 1993.
Slogoff, S., Allen, G. W., Wessels, J. V. Clinical experience with subanaesthetic ketamine. Anesth Analg (Cleve). 53:354–358, 1974.
White, P. F., Way, W. L., Trevor, A. J. Ketamine: its pharmacology and therapeutic uses. Anaethesiology. 56:119–136, 1982.
Medicines Compendium. Ketalar. Datapharm Publications, London, 2002.
Moore, K. A., Kilbane, E. M., Jones, R., Kunsman, G. W., Levine, B., Smith, M. Tissue distribution of ketamine in a mixed drug fatality. J. Forensic Sci. 2:1183–1185, 1997.
Sigell, L. T., Kapp, F. T., Fusaro, G. A., Nelson E. D., Falck, R. S. Popping and snorting volatile nitrites: a current fad for getting high. Am J Psychiatry. 135:1216–1218, 1978.
Schwartz, R. H. and Peary, P. Abuse of isobutyl nitrite inhalation (rush) by adolescents. Clin Pediatr. 25:308–310, 1986.
Stambach, T., Haire, K., Soni, N., and Booth, J. Saturday night blue—a case of near fatal poisoning from the abuse of amyl nitrite. J. Accid. Emerg. Med. 14:339–340, 1997.
Virkkunen, M., and Linnoila, M. Brain serotonin, type II alcoholism and impulsive violence. J. Stud. Alcohol. 11(Suppl):163–169, 1993.
Magennis, P., Shepherd, J., Hutchison, I., Brown, A. Trends in facial injury. Br. Med. J. 316:325–326, 1998.
The All Party Group on Alcohol Abuse. Alcohol and Crime: Breaking the Link. Alcohol Concern, London, 1995.
Sumner, M., and Parker, H. Low in Alcohol. A Review of International Research into Alcohol’s Role in Crime Causation. The Portman Group, London, 1995.
Moore, M. R. and Moore, S. R. The potential for the use of personal computers in clinical forensic medicine. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 1:139–143, 1994.
Robertson, G. The Role of Police Surgeons. The Royal Commission on Criminal Justice. Research Study No 6. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1992.
Payne-James, J. J., Keys, D. W., Wall, I., Jerreat, P. G., Dean, P. J. Alcohol misuse in clinical forensic medicine. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 4:17–19, 1997.
Best, D. Kefas, A. The role of alcohol in police-related deaths. Analysis of deaths in custody (Category 3) between 2000 and 2001. Police Complaints Authority, London, 2004.
Stockwell, T. and Stirling, L. Estimating alcohol content of drinks: common errors in applying the unit system. Br. Med. J. 298:571–572, 1989.
EEC Directive 766. 1976.
Ferner, R. E. Forensic Pharmacology. Medicines, Mayhem, and Malpractice. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996.
Baselt, R. C. Disposition of alcohol in man. In: Garriott, J, C., ed. Medicolegal Aspects of Alcohol, 3rd Ed. Lawyers and Judges Publishing Company, Tucson, AZ, 1996.
Stark, M. M. and Norfolk, G. A. Substance misuse. In: McLay, W. D. S. ed., Clinical Forensic Medicine. Greenwich Medical Media, London, 1996, pp. 173–179.
Holford, N. H. G. Clinical pharmacokinetics of ethanol. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 13:273–292, 1987.
Wilkinson, P. K., Sedman, A. J., Sakmar, E., Earhart, R. H., Kay, D. R., Wagner, J. G. Pharmacokinetics of ethanol after oral administration in the fasting state. J. Pharmacokinet. Biopharm. 5:207–224, 1977.
Jones, A. W. Biochemistry and physiology of alcohol: applications to forensic science and toxicology. In: Garriott, J. C., ed. Medicolegal Aspects of Alcohol, 3rd Ed. Lawyers and Judges, Tucson, AZ, 1996.
Drew, G. C., Colquhoun, W. P., Long, H. A. Effect of Small Doses of Alcohol on a Skill Resembling Driving. Medical Research Council Memorandum No. 38. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1959.
Jones, A. W. and Jonsson, K. A. Between-subject and within-subject variations in the pharmacokinetics of ethanol. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 37:427–431, 1994.
Schultz, J., Weiner, H., Westcott, J. Retardation of ethanol absorption by food in the stomach. J. Stud. Alcohol. 41:861–870, 1980.
Jones, A. W., and Jonsson, K. A. Food-induced lowering of blood-ethanol profiles and increased rate of elimination immediately after a meal. J. Forensic Sci. 39:1084–1093, 1994.
Sedman, A. J., Wilkinson, P. K., Sakmar, E., Weidler, D. J., Wagner, J. G. Food effects on absorption and elimination of alcohol. J. Stud. Alcohol. 37:1197–1214, 1976.
Walls, H. and Brownlie, A. R. Drink, Drugs and Driving, 2nd Ed. Sweet and Maxwell, London, 1985.
Jones, A. W. and Sternebring, B. Kinetics of ethanol and methanol in alcoholics during detoxification. Alcohol Alcoholism. 27:641–647, 1992.
Manno, J. E. and Manno, B. R. Experimental basis of alcohol-induced psychomotor performance impairment. In: Garriott, J.C., ed., Medicolegal Aspects of Alcohol, 3rd Ed. Lawyers and Judges, Tucson, AZ, 1996.
Urso, T., Gavaler, J. S., Van Thiel, D. H. Blood ethanol levels in sober alcohol users seen in an emergency room. Life Sci. 28:1053–1056, 1981.
Sullivan, J. B., Hauptman, M., Bronstein, A. C. Lack of observable intoxication in humans with high plasma alcohol concentrations. J. Forensic Sci. 32:1660–1665, 1987.
Garriott, J. C. Pharmacology and toxicology of ethyl alcohol. In: Garriott, J.C., ed. Medicolegal Aspects of Alcohol, 3rd Ed. Lawyers and Judges, Tucson, AZ, 1996.
Money, K., and Myles, W. Heavy water nystagmus and effects of alcohol. Nature. 247:404–405, 1974.
Behrens, M. M. Nystagmus. J. Ophthalmol Clin. 18:57–82, 1978.
Aschan, G. Different types of alcohol nystagmus. Acta Otolaryngol. 140(Suppl):69–78, 1958.
Aschan, G., Bergstedt, M., Goldberg, L., Laurell, L. Positional nystagmus in man during and after alcohol intoxication. Q. J. Stud. Alcohol. 17:381–405, 1956.
Goding, G. S. and Dobie, R. A. Gaze nystagmus and blood alcohol. Laryngoscope. 96:713–717, 1986.
Belton, H. Lateral nystagmus: a specific diagnostic sign of ethyl alcohol intoxication. N. Z. Med. J. 100:534–535, 1987.
Eakins, W. A. Clinical signs and the level of blood alcohol. Police Surg. 11:8–15, 1977.
Willoughby, E. W. Nystagmus and alcohol intoxication. N. Z. Med. J. 100:640, 1987.
Moczula, B. Alcohol and the law: the legal framework of scientific evidence and expert testimony. In: Garriott, J. C., ed. Medicolegal Aspects of Alcohol, 3rd Ed. Lawyers and Judges, Tucson, AZ, 1996.
British Medical Association. The Recognition of Intoxication. Report of a Special Committee of the British Medical Association. BMA, London, 1954.
Tennant, F. The rapid eye test to detect drug abuse. Postgrad. Med. 84:108–114, 1988.
Fleming, P. and Stewart, D. Drugs and Driving: Training Implications for Police Officers and Police Surgeons. Home Office Police Policy Directorate, London, 1998.
Simpson-Crawford, T. and Slater, S. W. Eye signs in suspected drinking drivers: clinical examination and relation to blood alcohol. N. Z. Med. J. 74:92–96, 1971.
Johnson, K., Pisoni, D. B., Bernacki, R. H. Do voice recordings reveal whether a person is intoxicated? A case study. Phonetica. 47:215–237, 1990.
Martin, C. S. Measuring acute alcohol impairment. In: Karch, S. B., ed., Drug Abuse Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1998, pp. 309–326.
Potter, J. F., Watson, R. D. S., Skan, W., Beevers, D. G. The pressor and metabolic effects of alcohol in normotensive subjects. Hypertension. 8:625–631, 1986.
Kelbaek, H., Gjorup, T., Brynjolf, I., Christensen, N. J., Godtfredsen, J. Acute effects of alcohol on left ventricular function in healthy subjects at rest and during upright exercise. Am. J. Cardiol. 55:164–167, 1985.
Kaye, S. and Haag, H. B. Terminal blood alcohol concentrations in 94 fatal cases of alcoholism. JAMA. 165:451–452, 1957.
Johnson, R. A., Noll, E. C., MacMillan Rodney, W. Survival after a serum ethanol level of 1.5 per cent. Lancet. 2:1394, 1982.
Rix, K. J. B. “Alcohol intoxication” or “drunkenness”: is there a difference? Med. Sci. Law. 29:100–106, 1989.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th Ed. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 1994.
Norfolk, G. A. Deaths in police custody during 1994: a retrospective analysis. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 5:49–54, 1998.
Royal College of Psychiatrists. Alcohol: Our Favourite Drug. Royal College of Psychiatrists, London, 1986.
Deehan, A., Stark, M. M., Marshall, E. J., Hanrahan, B., Strang, J. Drunken detainees in police custody: is brief intervention by the forensic medical examiner feasible? Crimin. Behav. Mental Health. 8:214–221, 1998.
Reilly, D., Van Beurden, E., Mitchell, E., Dight, R., Scott, C., Beard, J. Alcohol education in licensed premises using brief intervention strategies. Addiction. 93:385–398, 1998.
Midanik, L. The validity of self-reported alcohol consumption and alcohol problems: a literature review. Br. J. Addic. 77:357–382, 1982.
Babor, T. F., Ramon de la Fuente, J., Saunders, J., Grant, M. DIT, The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for use in Primary Health Care. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1992.
Pokorny, A. D., Miller, B. A., Kaplan, H. B. The brief MAST: a shortened version of the Michigan alcoholism screening test. Am. J. Psychiatry. 129:342–345, 1972.
Hedlund, J. L., and Vieweg, B. W. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): a comprehensive review. J. Operational Psychiatry. 15:55–65, 1984.
Mayfield, D., McLeod, G., Hall, P. The CAGE questionnaire: validation of a new alcoholism screening instrument. Am. J. Psychiatry. 131:1121–1123, 1974.
Ewing, J. A. Detecting alcoholism. The CAGE questionnaire. JAMA. 252:1905–1907, 1984.
Romach, M. K., and Sellers, E. M. Management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Annu. Rev. Med. 42:323–340, 1991.
Naik, P., and Lawton, J. (1993) Pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal. Br. J. Hosp. Med. 50:265–269, 1991.
Mayo-Smith, M. F. for the American Society of Addiction Medicine Working Group on Pharmacological Management of Alcohol Withdrawal. Pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal. A meta-analysis and evidence-based practice guideline. JAMA. 278:144–151, 1997.
Naik, P. and Lawton, J. Assessment and management of individuals under the influence of alcohol in police custody. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 3:37–44, 1996.
Linnoila, M. I. Benzodiazepines and alcohol. J. Psychiatr Res. 24(Suppl 2):121–127, 1990.