Skip to main content

Care of Detainees

  • Chapter

Part of the Forensic Science and Medicine book series (FSM)

Abstract

Doctors may be asked by the police to assess the fitness of adults and juveniles who are arrested in connection with an offense, are detained by immigration, require a place of safety (children and the mentally ill), or are remanded or sentenced (convicted) prisoners. A person in police custody is referred to as a detainee in this chapter. Detainees may have to be interviewed regarding their involvement in an offense and possibly further detained overnight for court; guidance may therefore have to be given to the custodians regarding their care.

Keywords

  • Head Injury
  • Alcohol Withdrawal
  • Retrograde Amnesia
  • Posttraumatic Amnesia
  • Blood Alcohol Level

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1385/1-59259-913-3:205
  • Chapter length: 30 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-59259-913-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (s.60 (1)(a) and s.66) Codes of Practice AF for England and Wales. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, Norwich, London, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  2. British Medical Association’s Medical Ethics Committee and Association of Forensic Physicians. Health Care of Detainees in Police Stations. British Medical Association, London, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Stark, M. M., Rogers, D. J., Norfolk, G. A. Good Practice Guidelines for Forensic Medical Examiners. Metropolitan Police. GPG Editors, Oxford, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Metropolitan Police. Medical Care of Prisoners-Person Ill or Injured. Special Notice 37/97. Metropolitan Police, London, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Payne-James, J. J. Work patterns of a forensic medical examiner for the Metropolitan Police. Police Surg. 42:21–24, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Young, S., Wells, D., Jackson, G. A tiered health care system for persons in police custody-the use of a forensic nursing service. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 1:21–25, 1994.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Smock, W. S. Development of a clinical forensic medicine curriculum for emergency physicians in the USA. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 1:27–30, 1994.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Hocking, G., Kalyanaraman, R., deMello, W. F. Better drug history taking: an assessment of the DRUGS mnemonic. J. R. Soc. Med. 91:305–306, 1998.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Howitt, J., Evans, V. The Safety and Security of the Administration of Medication in Police Custody. East Kilbride, Education and Research Committee of the Association of Forensic Physicians, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Howitt, J. Poor conditions of detention compromise ethical standards. J. R. Soc. Med. 88:40P–41P, 1995.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Brodie, M. J. Status epilepticus in adults. Lancet. 336:551–552, 1990.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Mathur, R., Bell, D. Asthma management in police study. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 3:133–140, 1996.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Heller, M. B., Vukmir, R. B. Glucagon for metabolic/endocrinologic emergencies: hypoglycaemia. In Picazo, J., ed., Glucagon in Acute Medicine. Pharmacological, Clinical and Therapeutic Implications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Payne-James, J. J. The role of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive (Histoacryl blue) in forensic medical practice. Police Surg. 43:30–31, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Marks, P. V. Acute head injury: assessment and practical management. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 1:43–46, 1994.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Jennett, B., Teasdale, G. Aspects of coma after severe head injury. Lancet. 1:878–881, 1977.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Head injury. Triage, assessment, investigation and early management of head injury in infants, children and adults. Clinical Guideline 4. NICE, London, 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Leigh, A., Johnson, G., Ingram, A. Deaths in Police Custody: Learning the Lessons. Police Research Series Paper 26. Police Research Group Publications, Home Office, London, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Norfolk, G. A., Rogers, D. J. Head Injury Warning. Education and Research Committee of the Association of Forensic Physicians, East Kilbride, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Payne-James, J. J., Keys, D. W., Wall, I., Dean, P. J. Prevalence of HIV factors for individuals examined in clinical forensic medicine. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 1:93–96, 1994.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. UK Health Departments. Guidance for Clinical Health Care Workers: Protection Against Infection with Blood-borne Viruses. Department of Health, London, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Regier, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. JAMA. 264:2511–2518, 1990.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Krausz, M. Old problems-new perspectives. Eur. Addic. Res. 2:1–2, 1996.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  24. Lehmann, A. F., Meyers, C. P., Corty, E. Classification of patients with psychiatric and substance abuse syndromes. Hosp. Commun. Psychiatry. 40:1019–1025, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Ingram, A., Johnson, G., Heyes, I. Self Harm and Suicide by Detained Persons: A Study. Police Research Group Publications, Home Office, London, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Norfolk, G. A. Deaths in police custody during 1994: a retrospective analysis. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 5: 49–54, 1998.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Schnieden, V., Stark, M. M., Payne-James, J. J. Violence in clinical forensic medicine. Med. Sci. Law. 35:333–335, 1995.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Schnieden, V., Maguire, J. A Report on Violence at Work and its Impact on the Medical Profession within Hospitals and the Community. British Medical Association, London, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Royal College of Psychiatrists. Using the Mental Health Act-A Training Resource for Doctors. Gaskell, Royal College of Psychiatrists, p. 72, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Johns, A., Clarke, S., Stark, M. M. Management of potentially violent detainees. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 1:139–144, 1997.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  31. Traub, S. J., Kohn, G. L., Hoffman, R. S., Nelson, L. S. Pediatric ‘body packing’. Achives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine.157:1:174–177, 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Association of Forensic Physicians and British Medical Association. Guidelines for Doctors Asked to Perform Intimate Body Searches. British Medical Association, London, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Stark, M. M. Guidelines for Police Surgeons Asked to Perform Intimate Searches for Drugs. Education and Research Sub-Committee of the Association of Police Surgeons, Harrogate, North Yorkshire, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Heinemann, A., Miyaishi, S., Iwersen, S., Schmoldt, A., Puschel, K. Body-packing as cause of unexpected sudden death. Forensic Sci. Int. 92:1–10, 1998.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Glass, J. M., Scott, H. J. “Surgical mules”: the smuggling of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract. J. R. Soc. Med. 88:450–453, 1995.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Das, D., Ali. B. Conservative management of asymptomatic cocaine body packers. Emer. Med. J. 20: 172–174, 2003.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  37. F. v West Berkshire Health Authority. 2 All ER 545, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Baldwin, J., McConville, M. Confessions in Crown Court Trials. Royal Commission on Criminal Procedure Research Study No. 5. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Wald, M., Ayres, R., Hess, D. W., Schantz, M., Whitebread, C. H. Interrogations in New Haven: the impact of Miranda. Yale Law J. 76:1519–1614, 1967.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  40. R. v Warickshall. 1 Leach 263, 1783.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Inbau, F. E., Reid, J. E. Criminal Interrogations and Confessions, 2nd ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Royal, R. F., Schutt, S. R. Gentle Art of Interviewing and Interrogation: A Professional Manual and Guide. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1976.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Walkley, J. Police Interrogation. A Handbook for Investigators. Police Review Publication, London, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Irving, B. Police Interrogation. A Case Study of Current Practice. Royal Commission on Criminal Procedure, Research Study No 2. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Irving, B. L., McKenzie, I. K. Police Interrogation: The Effects of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act. The Police Foundation, London, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Leiken, L. S. Police interrogation in Colorado: the implementation of Miranda. Denver Law J. 47:1–53, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Kennedy, L. 10 Rillington Place. Grafton, London, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Thomas, T. The Confait confessions. Policing. 3:214–225, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Kee, R. Trial and Error. The True Events Surrounding the Convictions and Trials of the Guildford Four and the Maguire Seven. Penguin, London, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Brandon, R., Davies, C. Wrongful Imprisonment. George Allen & Unwin, London, 1973.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Unreliable Evidence? Confessions and the Safety of Convictions. Justice, London, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Kassin, S. M., Wrightsman, L. S. The Psychology of Evidence and Trial Procedure. Sage Publications, London, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Gudjonsson, G. The Psychology of Interrogations, Confessions and Testimony. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Wolchover, D., Heaton-Armstrong, A. On Confession Evidence. Sweet & Maxwell, London, p. 99, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Gudjonsson, G. H., Clark, N. K. Suggestibility in police interrogation: a social psychological model. Soc. Behav. 1:83–104, 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Schooler, J. W., Loftus, E. F. Individual differences and experimentation: complementary approaches to interrogative suggestibility. Soc. Behav. 1:105–112, 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Gudjonsson, G. Interrogative suggestibility-can it be recognised in custody? In Norfolk, G. A., ed., Fit to be Interviewed by the Police. Association of Police Surgeons, Harrogate, 1997, pp 12–14.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Gudjonsson, G. H. Compliance in an interrogation situation: a new scale. Pers. Ind. Diff. 10:535–540, 1989.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  59. Groves, T. Explaining false confessions. Br. Med. J. 303:1087–1088, 1991.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  60. Miranda v Arizona 384 US 436, 1966.

    Google Scholar 

  61. R v Kenny Crim. L. R. 284, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  62. R v Cox Crim. L. R. 687, 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Norfolk, G. A. Fitness to be interviewed and the appropriate adult scheme: a survey of police surgeons’attitudes. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 3:9–13, 1996.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. Norfolk, G. A. “Fitness to be interviewed”-a proposed definition and scheme of examination. Med. Sci. Law. 37:228–234, 1997.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Norfolk, G. A. Fit to be interviewed-a police surgeon’s perspective. In Norfolk, G.A., ed., Fit to be Interviewed by the Police, Association of Police Surgeons, Harrogate, 1997, pp 43–48.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Clarke, M. D. B. “Fit for Interview?” Police Surg. 40:15–18, 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Carpenter, J. A. Effects of alcohol on some psychological processes. A critical review with special reference to automobile driving skill. Q. J. Stud. Alcohol. 23:274–314, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Loftus, E. F. “Did I really say that last night?” Alcohol, marijuana and memory. Psychol. Today. 92:42–56, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Carpenter, J. A., Ross, B. M. Effect of alcohol on short-term memory. Q. J. Stud. Alcohol. 26: 561–579, 1965.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Yuille, J. C., Tollestrup, P. A. Some effects of alcohol on eyewitness memory. J. Appl. Psychol. 75: 268–273, 1990.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Rogers, D. J., Stark, M. M., Howitt, J. B. The use of an alcometer in clinical forensic practice. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 2:177–183, 1995.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. Yesavage, J. A., Leirer, V. O. Hangover effects on aircraft pilots 14 hours after alcohol ingestion: a preliminary report. Am. J. Psychiatry. 143:1546–1550, 1986.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Gudjonsson, G., Hannesdottir, K., Petursson, H., Bjornsson, G. The effects of alcohol withdrawal on mental state, interrogative suggestibility and compliance: an experimental study. J. Forensic Psych. 13:53–67, 2002.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  74. Association of Police Surgeons and Royal College of Psychiatrists. Substance Misuse Detainees in Police Custody. Guidelines for Clinical Management (2nd ed.). Report of a Medical Working Group. Council Report CR81. Royal College of Psychiatrists, London, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Sigurdsson, J. F., Gudjonsson, G. H. Alcohol and drug intoxication during police interrogation and the reasons why suspects confess to the police. Addiction. 89:985–997, 1994.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Davison, S. E., Forshaw, D. M. Retracted confessions: through opiate withdrawal to a new conceptual framework. Med. Sci. Law. 33:285–290, 1993.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. Stark, M. M. Management of drug misusers in police custody. J. R. Soc. Med. 87:584–587, 1994.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Zacny, J. P. Should people taking opioids for medical reasons be allowed to work and drive? Addiction. 91: 1581–1584, 1996.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Ross, D. F., Read, J. D., Toglia, M. P. (eds.) Adult Eyewitness Testimony. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Gudjonsson, G. H. The vulnerabilities of mentally disordered witnesses. Med. Sci. Law. 35:101–106, 1995.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Bluglass, R., Bowden, P. Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Rix, K. J. B. Fit to be interviewed by the police? Adv. Psychiatr Treat. 3:33–40, 1997.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  83. Gudjonsson, G. “Fitness for interview” during police detention: a conceptual framework for forensic assessment. J. Forensic Psychiatry. 6:185–197, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Halstead, S. Forensic psychiatry for people with learning disability. Adv. Psychiatric Treat. 2: 76–85, 1996.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  85. Gudjonsson, G., Clare, I., Rutter, S., Pearse, J. The Royal Commission on Criminal Justice. Persons at Risk During Interviews in Police Custody: The Identification of Vulnerabilities. Research Study No. 12. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Lyall, I., Holland, A. J., Styles, P. Incidence of persons with a learning disability detained in police custody. A needs assessment for service development. Med. Sci. Law. 35:61–71, 1995.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. Murphy, G., Clare, I. C. H. People with learning disabilities as offenders or alleged offenders in the UK criminal justice system. J. R. Soc. Med. 91:178–182, 1998.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. Mayou, R. A. Emotional reactions to disorders. In Weatherall, D. J., Ledingham, J. G. G., Warrell, D. A., eds., Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Lishman, W. A. Organic Psychiatry. The Psychological Consequences of Cerebral Disorder. 2nd ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Lishman, W. A. Specific conditions giving rise to mental disorder. In Weatherall, D. J., Ledingham, J. G. G., and Warrell, D. A., eds., Oxford Textbook of Medicine. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Williams, D. The psychiatry of the epileptic. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 56:707–710, 1963.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Laidlaw, J., Richens, A., Chadwick, D. (eds.) A Textbook of Epilepsy. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Teasdale, G. M. Head injuries. In Weatherall, D. J., Ledingham, J. G. G., and Warrell, D. A., eds., Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Whitty, C. W. M., Zangwill, O. L., eds. Amnesia. Butterworths, London, 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Pearce, J. M. S. Headache. In Weatherall, D. J., Ledingham, J. G. G., and Warrell, D. A., eds., Oxford Textbook of Medicine. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Droba, M., Whybrow, P. C. Endocrine and metabolic disorders. In Kaplan, H. I., Sadock, B. J., eds., Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, vol. 2, 5th ed. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Deary, I. J. Effects of hypoglycaemia on cognitive function. In Frier, B. M., Fisher, B. M., eds., Hypoglycaemia and Diabetes: Clinical and Physiological Aspects. Edward Arnold, London, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Levy, D. Management of diabetes in clinical forensic practice. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 3:31–36, 1996.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. Hodges, J. R. Dementia, introduction. In Weatherall, D. J., Ledingham, J. G. G., Warrell, D. A., eds., Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Pearce, J. Dementia. A Clinical Approach. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., McHugh, P. R. “Mini-Mental State”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J. Psychiatr. Res. 12:189–198, 1975

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2005 Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Norfolk, G., Stark, M.M. (2005). Care of Detainees. In: Stark, M.M. (eds) Clinical Forensic Medicine. Forensic Science and Medicine. Humana Press. https://doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-913-3:205

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-913-3:205

  • Publisher Name: Humana Press

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-58829-368-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-59259-913-4

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)