Physicochemical Treatment Processes for Water Reuse

  • Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran
  • Huu Hao Ngo
  • Durgananda Singh Chaudhary
  • Yung-Tse Hung
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 3)


The continuing processes of industrialization and urbanization coupled with uncontrolled population growth, deforestation, and water pollution are exerting pressure on the planet’s limited freshwater resources. The need to recycle and reuse wastewater has been more and more realized, as the global supplies of clean water diminish and demand for water rises. Advanced wastewater treatment is becoming an international focus for the rational use of scarce water resources, and as means of safeguarding aquatic environments from the harm caused by wastewater disposal. Conventionally, wastewater was discharged into the environment after removing the majority of suspended solids in primary treatment and biodegradable organic substance in secondary treatment. These treatments are not sufficient to produce effluent of reusable quality. Now the trend is changing toward the total water recycle approach, which promotes ecological sustainability by managing the treated wastewater as a resource instead of a waste and, at the same time, reducing the demand for water from the existing water resources. Tertiary wastewater treatment is therefore required to remove most of the remaining organics, solids, and pathogenic microorganisms.


Reverse Osmosis Fecal Coliform Granular Activate Carbon Powdered Activate Carbon Water Reuse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ministry of Urban Development, Manual on Water Supply and Treatment, Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, 1991.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. H. Lee and T. C. Chou, Journal of the Chinese Institute of Chemical Engineers, 25, 239–245 (1994).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Vigneswaran and C. Visvanathan, Water Treatment Processes: Simple Options, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Sugaya, 6th World Filtration Congress, Nagoya, 1993, pp. 729–733.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. H. Ngo and S. Vigneswaran, J. Water Science and Technology 38, 87–93 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. H. Ngo and S. Vigneswaran, J. Water Science and Technology, 33, 63–70 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. L. Snoeyink, Adsorption of Organic Compounds, Water Quality and Treatment—Handbook of Community Water Supplies, AWWA, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Tien, Adsorption Calculations and Modeling, Butterworth-Heinemann Series in Chemical Engineering, 1994.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. McKay, Use of Adsorbents for the Removal of Pollutants from Wastewaters, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1995.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. Cooney, Adsorption Design for Wastewater Treatment, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1998.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Vigneswaran and R. Ben Aim (eds.), Water, Wastewater and Sludge Filtration, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1989.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Dillon, Water: Journal of Australian Water Association, 28, 18–21 (2001).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Vigneswaran, H. H. Ngo, J. Hu, and D. Y. Kwon, AIT Civil and Environmental Engineering Conference, New Frontiers & Challenges, Bangkok, 1999, Vol.1, pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. T. Hung, OCEESA J, 19, 48–53 (2002).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. S. Taylor and E. P. Jacobs, Water Treatment Membrane Processes (Mallevialle, J. Odendaal P. E., and Wiesner M. R. (eds.)), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996, pp. 9.1–9.70.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Rippenger, Water, Wastewater, and Sludge Filtration,(Vigneswaran, S. and Ben Aim, R. eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1989, pp. 173–190.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Vigneswaran, B. Vigneswaran, and R. Ben Aim, Environmental Sanitation Reviews 31, 5–46 (1991).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. G. Jacangelo and C. A. Buckley, Water Treatment Membrane Processes (Mallevialle, J., Odendaal, P. E., and Weisner, M. R., eds.). Mc Graw-Hill., New York, 1996, pp. 11.1–11.39.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bulletins A 2047, A 2051, A 2052, A 2056, and A 2069, Memtec-US Filter Technical Bulletins.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Roulet, Selected Topics on Clean Technology, (Vigneswaran, S., Mino, T., and Polprasert, C. eds.), Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, 1989, pp. 171–178Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. R. Overcash, Techniques for Industrial Pollution Prevention—A Compendium for Hazardous and Non-hazardous Waste Minimization, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI, 1986.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. L. Leslie, W. R. Dunivin, P. Gabillet, S. R. Conklin, W. R. Mills, and R. G. Sudar, Pilot testing of microfiltration and ultrafiltration upstream of reverse osmosis during reclamation of municipal wastewater, 1996 Technical Report (unpublished paper), 1996.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Chiemchaisri, K. Yamamoto, and S. Vigneswaran, J. Water Science and Technology 27, 171–178 (1993).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. Trouve, L. Detons, G. Greaugey, and J. Manem, Station d’epuration BRM de villegranque. Actes des 12emes Jounees Information Eaux-JIE 96, Portiers, 60-1–60-2, 1996.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V. Urbain, E. Trouve, and J. Manem, Proceedings of the 67thAnnual Conference and Exposition WEFTEC 94, Chicago, IL, 1994, pp. 317–323.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran
    • 1
  • Huu Hao Ngo
    • 1
  • Durgananda Singh Chaudhary
    • 1
  • Yung-Tse Hung
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Technology Sydney (UTS)Australia
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringCleveland State UniversityCleveland

Personalised recommendations