Advertisement

Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections System Programs in Biodefense

  • Julie A. Pavlin
  • Patrick W. Kelley
Chapter
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)

Abstract

One of the great fallacies of the mid-20th century was that infectious diseases were nearing elimination. In the face of those prognostications, more than 25 new infectious diseases were recognized for the first time between 1975 and 2000. These new scourges included HIV, Ebola, Legionnaire’s Disease, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, deadly new strains of influenza, and new forms of drug-resistant bacteria and malaria. Rather than nearing extinction as a broad class of human suffering, infectious diseases remain the leading cause of death worldwide. The ability of microbes to adapt to new pressures, including antibiotic usage coupled with changes in society, technology, and the environment make it likely that the microbial threat will remain a threat to humanity, and even suggests the possibility of regional and global epidemics comparable to the worst in history.

Keywords

Surveillance System Disease Outbreak Public Health Surveillance Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Aberdeen Prove Ground 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Langmuir, A. D. and Andrews, J. M. (1952) Biological warfare defense: the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the Communicable Disease Center. Am. J. Public Health 42, 235–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    O’Toole, T. (2001) Emerging illness and bioterrorism: implications for public health. J. Urban Health 78, 396–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Inglesby, T. V., Grossman, R., and O’Toole, T. (2001) A plague on your city: observations from TOPOFF. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32, 435, 436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khan, A. S. and Ashford, D. A. (2001) Ready or not-preparedness for bioterrorism. N. Engl. J. Med. 345, 287–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000) Updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems: recommendations from the guidelines working group. MMWR 50, 1–30.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thacker, S. B. and Berkelman, R. L. (1998) Public health surveillance in the United States. Epidemiol. Rev. 10, 164–190.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Army Medical Surveillance Activity. (2001) Completeness and timeliness of reporting of hospitalized notifiable cases, US Army, January 1995–June 2001. MSMR 7, 12–15.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Army Medical Surveillance Activity. (2001) Completeness and timeliness of reporting of hospitalized notifiable cases, US Navy, January 1998–June 2001. MSMR 7, 16–19.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Army Medical Surveillance Activity. (2001) Completeness and timeliness of reporting of hospitalized notifiable cases, US Air Force, January 1998–June 2001. MSMR 7, 20–23.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kaufmann, A., Meltzer, M., and Schmid, G. (1997) The economic impact of a bioterrorist attack: are prevention and postattack intervention programs justifiable? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3, 83–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fraser, D. W., Tsai, T. R., Orenstien, W. et al. (1977) Legionnaires’ disease: description of an epidemic of pneumonia. N. Engl. J. Med. 297, 1189–1197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1993) Outbreak of Hantavirus infection—Southwestern United States, 1993. MMWR 42, 495, 496.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fine, A. and Layton, M. (2001) Lessons from the West Nile viral encephalitis outbreak in New York City, 1999: implications for bioterrorism preparedness. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32, 277–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001) Update: investigation of anthrax associated with intentional exposure and interim public health guidelines, October, 2001. MMWR 50, 889–893.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khan, A. S., Morse, S., and Lillibridge, S. (2000) Public-health preparedness for biological terrorism in the USA. Lancet 356, 1179–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thacker, S. B. (2000) Historical development, in Principles and Practice of Public Health Surveillance, 2nd ed. (Teutsch, S. M. and Churchill, R. E., eds.), Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thomson, M., Connor, S., O’Neill, K., and Meert, J.-P. (2000) Environmental information for prediction of epidemics. Parasitol. Today 16, 137–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dowell, S. F. (2001) Seasonal variation in host susceptibility and cycles of certain infectious diseases. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7, 369–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Miller, J. R. and Mikol, Y. (1999) Surveillance for diarrheal disease in New York City. J. Urban Health 76, 388–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mikol, Y., Miller, J., and Ashendorff, A. (2000) Diarrheal disease surveillance programs: New York City’s experience. International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Proctor, M. E., Blair, K. A., and Davis, J. P. (1998) Surveillance data for waterborne illness detection: an assessment following a massive waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium infection. Epidemiol. Infect. 120, 43–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pavlin, J. A., Kelley, P. W., Mostashari, F., et al. (2002) Innovative surveillance methods for monitoring dangerous pathogens, in Institute of Medicine (US). Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 185–196.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Connolly, C. (2002) Bush promotes plans to fight bioterrorism. The Washington Post (Feb 6) Sect A, 3.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Espino, J. U., Tsui, F.-C., and Wagner, M. Realtime outbreak detection system (RODS). Available from http://www.health.pitt.edu/rods/rods.htm. Accessed on 11 Feb 2002.
  25. 25.
    Lazarus, R., Kleinman, K. P., Dashevsky, I., DeMaria, A., and Platt, R. (2001) Using automated medical records for rapid identification of illness syndromes (syndromic surveillance): the example of lower respiratory infection. BMC Public Health 1, 9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Idaho Technology. Idaho technology inc. Detection and identification of bio-warfare agents. Available from http://www.army-technology.com/contractors/nbc/idaho. Accessed on 2/11/2002.
  27. 27.
    Schafer, K. LEADERS (Lightweight Epidemiology Advanced Detection & Emergency Response System). Available from http://www.tricare.osd.mil/conferences/2001/agenda.cfm. Accessed on 2/12/2002.
  28. 28.
    New Mexico Department of Health. Rapid Syndrome Validation Project (RSVP) Project Description. Available from http://epi.health.state.nm.us/rsvpdesc/default.asp. Accessed on 2/11/2002.
  29. 29.
    Pavlin, J. A. (1999) Epidemiology of bioterrorism. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 528–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Torok, T. J., Tauxe, R. V., Wise, R. P., et al. (1997) A large community outbreak of salmonellosis caused by intentional contamination of restaurant salad bars. JAMA 278, 389–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Skeels, M. R. (2000) Laboratories and disease surveillance. Mil. Med. 165(Suppl. 2), 16–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Canas, L. C., Lohman, K., Pavlin, J. A., et al. (2000) The Department of Defense laboratory-based global influenza surveillance system. Mil. Med. 165(Suppl. 2), 52–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alibek, K. and Handelman, S. (1999) Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World: Told from the Inside by the Man Who Ran It. Random House.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    O’Brien, T. F., Eskildsen, M. A., and Stelling, J M. (2000) The complex processes of antimicrobial resistance and the information needed to manage them. Mil. Med. 165(Suppl. 2), 12–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Effler, P., Ching-Lee, M., Bogard, A., Ieong, M.-C., Nekomoto, T., and Jernigan, D. (1999) Statewide system of electronic notifiable disease reporting from clinical laboratories. Comparing automated reporting with conventional methods. JAMA 282, 1845–1850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Davis, S. R. (2000) The state of antibiotic resistance surveillance: an overview of existing activities and new strategies. Mil. Med. 165(Suppl. 2), 35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gilchrist, M. J. R. (2000) A national laboratory network for bioterrorism: evolution from a prototype network of laboratories performing routine surveillance. Mil. Med. 165(Suppl. 2), 28–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000) Biological and chemical terrorism: Strategic plan for preparedness and response. MMWR 49(RR-4), 1–14.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Asher, M. S. (2000) A civilian-military virtual public health laboratory network. Mil. Med. 165(Suppl. 2), 1–4.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bolton, J. C. and Gaydos, J. C. (2000) Workshop group B: a Department of Defense (DOD) directory of public health laboratory services for infectious agents and public health laboratory system. Mil. Med. 165(Suppl. 2), 66–69.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julie A. Pavlin
    • 1
  • Patrick W. Kelley
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Field StudiesWalter Reed Army Institute of ResearchSilver Spring
  2. 2.Board of Public HealthInstitute of Medicine at the National Academies of ScienceWashington

Personalised recommendations