Abstract

Several prominent scholars have recently called for the unification of otherwise disparate fields under one common umbrella, namely the all-encompassing Darwinian framework. Wilson (1998) proposed that all human pursuits and areas of knowledge (e.g., the sciences, the arts, religion) can be fully understood only when viewed as arising from a small set of Darwinian principles. Tooby and Cosmides (1992) have argued for a similar integration across all branches of social sciences and more specifically within the cognate discipline of psychology. Saad and Gill (2000) recently proposed that marketing, as an academic discipline, would greatly benefit from an infusion of evolutionary thinking within its theoretical bases. The current chapter takes this integrative exercise one step further in specificity; namely, it links the most recent of all of the Darwinian frameworks (evolutionary psychology) to a subbranch of marketing (namely political marketing). I shall restrict my discussion to one particular area of political marketing, namely voters’ information search and information processing activities. Specifically, I will argue that the processes by which voters decide which candidate information to evaluate, how much candidate information to acquire, and which cognitive mechanisms to use to process the available information, can all be best explained via evolutionary psychology. In the ensuing section, I begin with a brief description of the evolutionary psychology framework followed by a summary of how I have previously proposed that it can be applied to consumer marketing.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aschenbrenner, K. M., D. Albert, and F. Schmalhofer. (1984). Stochastic choice heuristics. Acta Psychologica 56: 153–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buss, D. (1994). The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  3. Byrne, R. W. and A. Whiten (Eds.). (1988). Machiavellian Intelligence: Social Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes and Humans. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  4. Byrne, R. W. and A. Whiten. (1997). Machiavellian intelligence. In A. Whiten and R. W. Byrne (Eds.), Machiavellian Intelligence II: Extensions and Evaluations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Cosmides, L. and J. Tooby. (1992). Cognitive adaptations for social exchange. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, and J. Tooby. (Eds.), The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Daly, M. and M. Wilson. (1988). Homicide. New York: A. de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  7. Eagly, A. H., R. D. Ashmore, M. G. Makhijani, and L. C. Longo. (1991). What is beautiful is good, but ...: A meta-analytic review of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype. Psychological Bulletin 110: 109–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Harris, P., A. Lock, and P. Rees. (2000). Machiavelli, Marketing and Management. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Frank, R. H. and P. J. Cook. (1995). The Winner Take All Society. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  10. Gigerenzer, G. and P. M. Todd. (1999). Fast and frugal heuristics: The adaptive toolbox. In G. Gigerenzer, P. M. Todd, and the ABC Research Group (Eds.), Simpk Heuristics that Make Us Smart. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Goldstein, D. G. and G. Gigerenzer. (1999). The recognition heuristic: How ignorance makes us smart. In G. Gigerenzer, P. M. Todd, and the ABC Research Group (Eds.), Simple Heuristics that Make Us Smart. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Kahneman, D., P. Slovic, and A. Tversky (Eds.). (1982). Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Kotler, P. and N. Kotler. (1999). Political marketing: Generating effective candidates, Campaigns, and causes. In Bruce I. Newman (Ed.), Handbook of Political Marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  14. LaTour, M. S. (1990). Female nudity in print advertising: An analysis of gender differences in arousal and ad response. Psychology and Marketing 7 (1): 65–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Machiavelli, N. (1513/1961). The Prince. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, (translated from the Italian version by G. Bull).Google Scholar
  16. Maarek, P. J. (1995). Political Marketing and Communication. London: John Libbey & Company Ltd.Google Scholar
  17. Payne, J. W., J. R. Bettman, and E. J. Johnson. (1993). The Adaptive Decision Maker. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pinker, S. (1997). How the Mind Works. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  19. Plasser, F., C. Scheucher, and C. Senft. (1999). Is there a European style of political marketing? A survey of political managers and consultants. In Bruce I. Newman (Ed.), Handbook of Political Marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  20. Popkin, S. L. (1991). The Reasoning Voter: Communication and Persuasion in Presidential Campaigns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  21. Saad, G. (1994). The Adaptive Use of Stopping Policies in Sequential Consumer Choice. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  22. Saad, G. and T. Gill. (2000). Applications of evolutionary psychology to marketing. Psychology and Marketing 17(12): 1005–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Saad, G. and J. E. Russo. (1996). Stopping criteria in sequential choice. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 67(3): 258–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Saks, O. (1990). The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat and Other Clinical Tales. New York, NY: HarperPerennial.Google Scholar
  25. Schmalhofer, F., A. Dietrich, K. M. Aschenbrenner, and H. Gertzen. (1986). Process traces of binary choices: Evidence for selective and adaptive decision heuristics. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 38A: 59–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schubert, J. and M. A. Curran. (2001). Appearance effects in political careers: Do politicians with good genes get more votes. Paper presented at the Human Behavior and Evolution Society Meetings, London, England.Google Scholar
  27. Schur, D. (1999). Coordinating the paid and earned media message. In Bruce I. Newman (Ed.), Handbook of Political Marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Schwarz, N. and G. L. Clore. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45: 513–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Simon, H. A. (1982). Models of Bounded Rationality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  30. Symons, D. (1979). The Evolution of Human Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Tooby, J. and L. Cosmides. (1992). Psychological foundations of culture. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, and J. Tooby (Eds.), The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Wilson, E. O. (1998). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. London: Abacus.Google Scholar
  33. Whiten, A. and R. W. Byrne. (Eds.). (1997). Machiavellian Intelligence II: Extensions and Evaluations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Wright, R. (1995). The Moral Animal—Why We Are the Way We Are: The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Albert Somit and Steven A. Peterson 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gad Saad

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations